Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 56–23–5
NIOSH REL: 2 ppm (12.6 mg/m3) 60-minute STEL; NIOSH considers carbon tetrachloride to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].
Current OSHA PEL: 10 ppm TWA, 25 ppm CEILING,
200 ppm 5-min MAXIMUM PEAK in any 4 hours
1989 OSHA PEL: 2 ppm (12.6 mg/m3) TWA
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 5 ppm (31 mg/m3) TWA, 10 ppm (63 mg/m3) STEL [skin], A3
Description of Substance: Colorless liquid with a characteristic ether-like odor.
LEL: . . Noncombustible Liquid
Original (SCP) IDLH: 300 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: ACGIH  reported that a severe case of human poisoning has been observed after a 3-hour exposure to concentrations ranging from 75 to 600 ppm and averaging about 210 ppm [Barnes and Jones 1967]. AIHA  reported that exposures for 0.5 to 1 hour to 1,000 to 2,000 ppm have caused human fatalities from acute kidney damage [Fassett]. Kirk-Othmer  reported that a 30-minute exposure to about 300 ppm causes symptoms of intoxication. Based on these data, an IDLH of 300 ppm is chosen.
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
Lethal concentration data:
|Species||Reference||LC50(ppm)||LCLo(ppm)||Time||Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF*)||Derivedvalue|
|AAPCO 1966Clayton 1967
Flury and Zernik 1935
Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1980
Svirbely et al. 1947
Tab Biol Per 1933
von Oettingen 1949
|?32,807 ppm (1.64)
62,500 ppm (1.64)
16,800 ppm (2.10)
25,625 ppm (2.69)
26,374 ppm (0.53)
39,328 ppm (2.69)
*Note: Conversion factor (CF) was determined with “n” = 2.8 [ten Berge et al. 1986].
Other human data: A severe case of poisoning was observed after a 3-hour exposure to concentrations ranging from 75 to 600 ppm and averaging about 210 ppm [Barnes and Jones 1967]. It has been reported that exposures to 1,000 to 2,000 ppm for 0.5 to 1 hour have caused human fatalities from acute kidney damage [AIHA 1961]. It has also been reported that a 30-minute exposure to about 300 ppm causes symptoms of intoxication [Kirk-Othmer 1964].
|Revised IDLH: 200 ppmBasis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for carbon tetrachloride is 200 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [AIHA 1961; Barnes and Jones 1967; Kirk-Othmer 1964]. [Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the “most protective” respirators be worn for carbon tetrachloride at concentrations above 2 ppm.]|
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3. AIHA . Carbon tetrachloride (revised 1961). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 22:507-509.
4. Barnes R, Jones RC . Carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29:557-560.
5. Clayton JW Jr . Fluorocarbon toxicity and biological action. Fluor Chem Rev 1(2):197-252.
6. Fassett DW [?]. Personal communication to AIHA from the Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY. [From: AIHA . Carbon tetrachloride (revised 1961). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 22:507-509.]
7. Flury F, Zernik F . Zusammenstellung der toxischen und letalen dosen für die gebräuchlichsten gifte und versuchstiere. Abder Hand Biol Arbeitsmethod 4:1289-1422 (in German).
8. Gig Tr Prof Zabol ; 24(3):17-20 (in Russian).
9. Kirk-Othmer . Carbon tetrachloride. In: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5:128-139.
10. NPIRI . Raw materials data handbook, physical and chemical properties, fire hazard and health hazard data. Vol. 1. Organic solvents. Bethlehem, PA: National Printing Ink Research Institute, p. 16.
11. Svirbely JL, Highman B, Alford WC, von Oettingen WF . The toxicity and narcotic action of mono-chloro-mono-bromo-methane with special reference to inorganic and volatile bromide in blood, urine and brain. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 29:382-389.
12. Tab Biol Per ; 3:231 (in German).
13. ten Berge WF, Zwart A, Appelman LM . Concentration-time mortality response relationship of irritant and systematically acting vapours and gases. J Haz Mat 13:301-309.
14. von Oettingen WF . Studies on the relationship between the toxic action of chlorinated methanes and their chemical and physicohemical properties. NIH Bulletin 191:1-85.
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- Page last updated: December 4, 2014
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