Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 2698–41–1
NIOSH REL: 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) CEILING [skin]
Current OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) CEILING [skin]
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm (0.39 mg/m3) CEILING [skin]
Description of Substance: White crystalline solid with a pepper-like odor.
LEL: . . Unknown
Original (SCP) IDLH: 2 mg/m3
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the Army  report that a 2-minute exposure to concentrations between 2 and 10 mg/m3 was considered “intolerable” by 6 of 15 persons. Grant  reported that human volunteers have found concentrations greater than 10 mg/m3 to be extremely irritating, intolerable for more than 30 seconds because of burning and pain in the eyes and chest [Punte et al. 1963].
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
Lethal concentration data:
|Species||Reference||LC50(ppm)||LCLo(ppm)||Time||Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF)||Derivedvalue|
|Ballantyne and Swanston 1978Ballantyne and Swanston 1978
Ballantyne and Swanston 1978
Ballantyne and Swanston 1978
|1,806 mg/m32,753 mg/m3
|45 min20 min
|2,059 mg/m3 (1.14)2,643 mg/m3 (0.96)
1,243 mg/m3 (0.69)
1,605 mg/m3 (0.69)
|206 mg/m3264 mg/m3
Other animal data: RD50(mouse), 4.08 mg/m3 [Alarie 1981].
Human data: It has been reported that median incapacitating concentrations range from 12 to 20 mg/m3 after about 20 seconds of exposure [U.S. Depts of Army and Air Force 1963] and that a 2-minute exposure to concentrations between 2 and 10 mg/m3 was considered “intolerable” by 6 of 15 persons [Army 1961]. In another study, 3 of 4 volunteers exposed to 1.5 mg/m3 for 90 minutes developed headaches and 1 volunteer developed slight eye and nose irritation; human volunteers have found concentrations greater than 10 mg/m3 to be extremely irritating and intolerable for more than 30 seconds because of burning and pain in the eyes and chest [Punte et al. 1963]. Exposures above 14 mg/m3 for 1 hour produced extreme irritation, erythema, and vesication of the skin of volunteers [Weigand 1969].
|Revised IDLH: 2 mg/m3 [Unchanged]Basis for revised IDLH: Based on acute inhalation toxicity data in human volunteers [Army 1961; Punte et al. 1963; U.S. Depts of Army and Air Force 1963; Weigand 1969], the original IDLH for o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (2 mg/m3) is not being revised at this time.|
1. Alarie Y . Dose-response analysis in animal studies: prediction of human responses. Environ Health Perspect 42:9-13.
2. Army . U.S. Army, Chemical Corps Safety Directive No. 385-12. Safety guide for processing, filling, handling and decontamination of CS and CS1. Edgewood Arsenal, MD: CML C SD-385-12, p. 4.
3. Ballantyne B, Swanston DW . The comparative acute mammalian toxicity of 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) and 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS). Arch Toxicol 40:75-95.
4. Grant WM . Toxicology of the eye. 2nd ed. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas, pp. 263-264.
5. Punte CL, Owens EJ, Gutentag PJ . Exposures to ortho-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile: controlled human exposures. Arch Environ Health 6:366-374.
6. U.S. Departments of the Army and Air Force . Military chemistry and chemical agents. Washington, DC: Army Technical Manual TM3-215; Air Force Manual AFM 355-7, December 1963.
7. Weigand DA . Cutaneous reaction to the riot control agent CS. Milit Med 134:437.