Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 13463–67–7
NIOSH REL: None established; NIOSH considers titanium dioxide to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].
Current OSHA PEL: 15 mg/m3 TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: 10 mg/m3 TWA
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 10 mg/m3 TWA
Description of substance: White, odorless powder.
LEL: . . Noncombustible Solid
Original (SCP) IDLH*: No Evidence [*Note: “Effective” IDLH = 7,500 mg/m3 — see discussion below.]
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence that exposure to a high concentration of titanium dioxide would impede escape within 30 minutes. For this draft technical standard, therefore, respirators have been selected on the basis of the assigned protection factor afforded by each device. However, for some particulate substances for which no evidence of an IDLH exists, the determination of allowable respiratory protection based on protection factors may result in the assignment of respirators for concentrations that are not likely to be encountered in the occupational environment. Therefore, for all such particulate substances it has been arbitrarily determined that only the “most protective” respirators are permitted for use in concentrations exceeding 500 ´ the OSHA PEL (500 ´ 15 mg/m3 is 7,500 mg/m3).
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Animal or human data: None relevant for use in determining the revised IDLH.
|Revised IDLH: 5,000 mg/m3
Basis for revised IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence that an acute exposure to a high concentration of titanium dioxide would impede escape or cause any irreversible health effects within 30 minutes. However, the revised IDLH for titanium dioxide is 5,000 mg/m3 based on being 500 times the OSHA PEL of 10 mg/m3 promulgated in 1989 (500 is an assigned protection factor for respirators and was used arbitrarily during the Standards Completion Program for deciding when the "most protective" respirators should be used for particulates). [Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the "most protective" respirators be worn for titanium dioxide at any detectable concentration.]