Nickel carbonyl (as Ni)

May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS number: 13463–39–3

NIOSH REL: 0.001 ppm (0.007 mg/m3) TWA; NIOSH considers nickel carbonyl to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].

Current OSHA PEL: 0.001 ppm (0.007 mg/m3) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm (0.12 mg/m3) TWA

Description of substance: Colorless to yellow liquid with a musty odor.

LEL: . . . 2% (10% LEL, 2,000 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH*: 7 ppm [*Note: “Effective” IDLH = 2 ppm — see discussion below.]

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH could be based on the statement by ACGIH [1971] that a 30-minute exposure to 7 ppm is lethal for mice [Kincaid et al. 1953]. According to AIHA [1968], the mouse 30-minute LC50 is 10 ppm [Kincaid et al. 1953]. Because of the assigned protection factor afforded by each device, however, 2,000 ´ the OSHA PEL of 0.001 ppm (i.e., 2 ppm) is the concentration above which only the “most protective” respirators are permitted. With regard to the short exposure tolerance for humans, AIHA [1968] reported that a concentration of 3 ppm for 30 minutes has been suggested [Kincaid et al. 1953].

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:

Lethal concentration data:

Species Reference LC50(ppm) LCLo(ppm) Time Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF) Derived value
DogHuman

Cat

Rabbit

Rat

Mouse

Mouse

Mouse

Armit 1909Brief et al. 1971

Coulston & Korte 1975

Gekkan Yakuji 1980

Kincaid et al. 1956

Kincaid et al. 1956

Kincaid et al. 1953

Kincaid et al. 1953

———-

266

—–

35

—–

94

10

36030

—–

42

—–

7

—–

—–

90 min30 min

30 min

30 min

30 min

30 min

30 min

30 min

519 ppm (1.44)30 ppm (1.0)

266 ppm (1.0)

42 ppm (1.0)

35 ppm (1.0)

7 ppm (1.0)

94 ppm (1.0)

10 ppm (1.0)

52 ppm3.0 ppm

27 ppm

4.2 ppm

3.5 ppm

0.7 ppm

9.4 ppm

1.0 ppm

Other human data: It has been stated that 3 ppm for 30 minutes is the probable short-term exposure limit [Kincaid et al. 1956].

REFERENCES:

1. ACGIH [1971]. Nickel carbonyl. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 180.

2. AIHA [1968]. Nickel carbonyl. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29:304-307.

3. Armit HW [1909]. The toxicology of nickel carbonyl. J Hyg 7:525-551.

4. Brief RS, Blanchard JW, Scala RA, Blacker JH [1971]. Metal carbonyls in the petroleum industry. Arch Environ Health 23:373-384.

5. Coulston F, Korte F, eds. [1975]. Heavy metal toxicity, safety and hormology. In: Environmental Quality & Safety, Supplement 1. New York, NY: Georg Thieme Publishers, pp. 1-120.

6. Gekkan Yakuji (Pharmaceuticals Monthly) [1980]; 22(3):455-459 (in Japanese).

7. Kincaid JF, Stanley EL, Beckworth CH, Sunderman FW [1956]. Nickel poisoning. III. Procedures for detection, prevention, and treatment of nickel carbonyl exposure including a method for the determination of nickel in biologic materials. Am J Clin Pathol 26:107-119.

8. Kincaid JF, Strong JS, Sunderman FW [1953]. Nickel poisoning. I. Experimental study of the effects of acute and subacute exposure to nickel carbonyl. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 8:48-60.

Page last reviewed: December 4, 2014