Ethylene chlorohydrin

May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS number: 107–07–3

NIOSH REL: 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) CEILING [skin]

Current OSHA PEL: 5 ppm (16 mg/m3) TWA [skin]

1989 OSHA PEL: 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) CEILING [skin]

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 1 ppm (3.3 mg/m3) CEILING [skin]

Description of Substance: Colorless liquid with a faint, ether-like odor.

LEL:. . 4.9% (10% LEL, 4,900 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 10 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: Browning [1965] stated that the lethal dose differs somewhat in the hands of different observers. An LC50 of 290 mg/m3 (88 ppm) for rats [Semenova et al. 1971] was cited by NIOSH [1973]. However, an IDLH of 10 ppm is chosen based on other data (i.e., a rat 4-hour LC50 of 32 ppm [Browning 1965]; a rat 4-hour LC50 of 33 ppm [Patty 1963]; exposure to 7.5 ppm for 1 hour, which was lethal to rats, and 4 ppm, which was lethal to rats following 2 exposures of 1 hour each [Browning 1965]; and a ceiling TLV of 1 ppm [ACGIH 1976]).

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal concentration data:

Species Reference LC50(ppm) LCLo(ppm) Time Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF) Derivedvalue
RatRat

G. pig

Rat

Rat

Mouse

Ambrose 1950Browning 1965

Kovyzin 1971

Patty 1963

Semenova et al. 1971

Semenova et al. 1971

7.532

260

33

87

115

———-

—–

—–

—–

—–

1 hr4 hr

?

4 hr

?

?

9 ppm (1.2)64 ppm (2.0)

?

66 ppm (2.0)

?

?

0.9 ppm6.4 ppm

?

6.6 ppm

?

?

 

Lethal dose data:

Species Reference Route LD50(mg/kg) LDLo(mg/kg) Adjusted LD Derivedvalue
RatMouse

Rat

G. pig

Goldblatt and Chiesman 1944Lawrence et al. 1971

Semenova et al. 1971

Smyth et al. 1941

oraloral

oral

oral

7281

71

110

———-

—–

—–

150 ppm169 ppm

148 ppm

230 ppm

15 ppm17 ppm

15 ppm

23 ppm

 

Other animal data: Rats exposed for 15 minutes a day at concentrations of 900 to 1,000 ppm died within a few days [Goldblatt and Chiesman 1944]. Repeated 1-hour exposures (not defined) to 2 ppm can be fatal to rats [Ambrose 1950].

Human data: Death has resulted from a 2-hour exposure at an estimated concentration of 300 ppm [Dierker and Brown 1944].

 

REFERENCES:

1. ACGIH [1976]. TLVs, Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the workroom environment with intended changes for 1976. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 18.

2. Ambrose AM [1950]. Toxicological studies of compounds investigated for use as inhibitors of biological processes. II. Toxicity of ethylene chlorohydrin. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 21:591-597.

3. Browning E [1965]. Toxicity and metabolism of industrial solvents. New York, NY: Elsevier Publishing Company, p. 399.

4. Dierker H, Brown PG [1944]. Study of a fatal case of ethylene chlorohydrin poisoning. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 26:277-279.

5. Goldblatt MW, Chiesman WE [1944]. Toxic effects of ethylene chlorohydrin. Part I. Clinical. Br J Ind Med 1:207-223.

6. Kovyzin VG [1971]. Experimental data on the substantiation of the threshold of ethylene chlorohydrin in the air of the working zone. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 15(2):54-64 (in Russian).

7. Lawrence WH, Turner JE, Autian JJ [1971]. Toxicity of ethylene chlorohydrin. I. Acute Toxicity Studies. J Pharm Sci 60:568-571.

8. NIOSH [1973]. 10274. Ethanol, 2-chloro-. In: The toxic substances list, 1973 ed. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Publication No. HSM 73-11020, p. 413.

9. Patty FA, ed. [1963]. Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 1495.

10. Semenova VN, Kazanina SS, Ekshtat BY [1971]. On the toxic properties of ethylene chlorohydrin in the air of working premises. Gig Sanit 36:376 (translated).

11. Smyth HF Jr, Seaton J, Fischer L [1941]. The single dose toxicity of some glycols and derivatives. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 23:259-268.

Page last reviewed: December 4, 2014