Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 107-02-8
NIOSH REL: 0.1 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) TWA, 0.3 ppm (0.8 mg/m3) STEL
Current OSHA PEL: 0.1 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: 0.1 ppm (0.25 mg/m3) TWA, 0.3 ppm (0.8 mg/m3) STEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm (0.23 mg/m3) TWA, 0.3 ppm (0.67 mg/m3) STEL
Description of substance: Colorless or yellow liquid with a piercing, disagreeable odor.
LEL: 2.8% (10% LEL, 2,800 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 5 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement by ACGIH  that 5.5 ppm results in intense irritation and 10 ppm or more is lethal in a short time [Henderson and Haggard 1943]. According to MCA , the irritation properties of acrolein are clearly evident at 1 ppm. ACGIH  reported that 1 of 6 rats died after being exposed to 8 ppm for 4 hours and all died from exposure to 16 ppm [Smyth 1956].
Existing short-term exposure: 1989 American Industrial Hygiene Association guidelines
(AIHA) Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs):
ERPG-1: 0.1 ppm (60-minute)
ERPG-2: 0.5 ppm (60-minute)
ERPG-3: 3 ppm (60-minute)
National Research Council [NRC 1984] Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels (EEGLs):
10-minute EEGL: 0.1 ppm
60-minute EEGL: 0.05 ppm (tentative)
24-hour EEGL: 0.01 ppm (tentative)
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
Lethal concentration data:
|Mouse||Albin 1962||875||—–||1 min||280 ppm (0.32)||28 ppm|
|Mouse||Albin 1962||175||—–||10 min||121 ppm (0.69)||12 ppm|
|Dog||Albin 1962||150||—–||30 min||150 ppm (1.0)||15 ppm|
|Rat||Carpenter et al. 1949||8||—–||4 hr||16 ppm (2.0)||1.6 ppm|
|Rat||Catilina et al. 1966||375||—–||10 min||259 ppm (0.69)||26 ppm|
|Hamster||Kruysse 1971||25.4||—–||4 hr||51 ppm (2.0)||5.1 ppm|
|Cat||Skog 1950||—–||674||2 hr||1,078 ppm (1.6)||108 ppm|
|Rat||Skog 1950||131||—–||30 min||131 ppm (1.0)||13 ppm|
Other animal data: RD50 (mouse), 1.68 [Alarie 1981].
Human data: It has been reported that 5.5 ppm results in intense irritation and marked lacrimation, after 60 seconds [Henderson and Haggard 1943]. Exposures to 1.8 ppm result in slight eye irritation after 1 minute and profuse lacrimation after 4 minutes [NRC 1981]. In volunteers exposed for 5 minutes, concentrations of 2 to 2.3 ppm produced severe irritation [Darley et al. 1960]. A 10-minute exposure at 8 ppm and a 5-minute exposure at 1.2 ppm elicited extreme irritation described as “only just tolerable” [Sim and Pattle 1957].
Revised IDLH: 2 ppm
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for acrolein is 2 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Darley et al. 1960; Henderson and Haggard 1943; NRC 1981; Sim and Pattle 1957].
- ACGIH . Acrolein. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 5.
- Alarie Y . Dose-response analysis in animal studies: prediction of human responses. Environ Health Perspect 42:9-13.
- Albin TB . Handling and toxicology. In: Acrolein, Smith CW, ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 234-239.
- Carpenter CP, Smyth HF Jr, Pozzani UC . The assay of acute vapor toxicity and the grading and interpretation of results on 96 chemical compounds. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 31(6):343-346.
- Catilina P, Thieblot L, Champeix J . Experimental respiratory lesions by inhalation of acrolein in the rat. Arch Mal Prof 27:857-867 (in French).
- Darley EF, Middleton JT, Garber MJ . Plant damage and eye irritation from ozone-hydrocarbon reactions. J Agri Food Chem 8:483-485.
- Henderson Y, Haggard HW . Noxious gases. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, p. 138.
- Kruysse A . Acute inhalation toxicity of acrolein in hamsters (Report R 3516). The Netherlands: Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research; TNO.
- MCA . Chemical safety data sheet SD-85: properties and essential information for safe handling and use of acrolein. Washington, DC: Manufacturing Chemists Association, pp. 1-15.
- NRC . Formaldehyde and other aldehydes. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, National Research Council, pp. 234-241.
- NRC . Emergency and continuous exposure limits for selected airborne contaminants. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, Committee on Toxicology, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, pp. 27-34.
- Pattle R, Collumbine H . Toxicity of some atmospheric pollutants. Br Med J 2:913-916.
- Philippin C, Gilgen A, Grandjean E . Toxicological and physiological investigation on acrolein inhalation in the mouse. Int Arch Arbeitsmed 26:281-305 (translated).
- Sangyo Igaku (Japanese Journal of Industrial Health) ; 19:367 (in Japanese).
- Sim VM, Pattle RE . Effect of possible smog irritants on human subjects. JAMA 165(15):1908-1913.
- Skog E . A toxicological investigation of lower aliphatic aldehydes. I. Toxicity of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde; as well as acrolein and crotonaldehyde. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 6(4):299-318.
- Smyth HF Jr . Improved communication: hygienic standards for daily inhalation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 17(2):129-185.