Bakery Flour-Handling Equipment and Ovens
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2004-101
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This checklist covers regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) under the general industry standard 29 CFR 1910.263. The requirements of this checklist apply to the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of machinery and equipment used in a bakery. Equipment covered in this checklist includes bag chutes and bag lifts, dumpbins and blenders, and ovens. The regulations cited apply only to private employers and their employees, unless adopted by a State agency and applied to other groups such as public employees.
Questions marked with this symbol may require the help of an outside expert.
This checklist does not address general requirements for flour handling [1910.263 (d)(1)], flour storage bins [1910.263 (d)(6)], flour screw conveyors [1910.263 (d)(7)], flour sifters [1910.263 (d)(8)], and flour scales [1910.263 (d)(9)]. Consult 29 CFR 1910.263 for the regulations dealing with such equipment.
- Are bag chutes (gravity chutes for handling flour bags) designed so that the speed of flour bags is kept to a minimum? [29 CFR 1910.263(d)(2)(i)]
Note: If the chute inclines more than 30 degrees from the horizontal, an upturn should be at the lower end of the chute to slow down the bags.
- Are dumpbin and blender hoods of sufficient capacity to prevent circulation of flour dust outside the hoods? [29 CFR 1910.263(d)(3)(v)]
- Are dumpbins high enough from the ground so the operator can dump the flour bags without causing undue strain or fatigue? [29 CFR 1910.263(d)(3)(vi)]
- If the edge of any bin is more than 24 inches above the floor, is a bag rest step provided? [29 CFR 1910.263(d)(3)(vi)]
- Is a control device within the operator’s reach to stop the dumpbin and blender? [29 CFR 1910.263(d)(3)(vii)]
- Are emergency stop buttons provided on mechanical ovens near where the operator is stationed? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(3)(i)]
- Is all piping at the oven tested to be gas tight? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(3)(ii)]
- Are main shutoff valves provided to turn off the fuel or steam in case of an emergency? Can they be operated separately from any automatic valve? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(3)(iii)]
- Is the main shutoff valve located where explosions, fire, etc. will not prevent access to this valve? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(3)(iii)(a)]
- Is the main shutoff valve locked in the closed position when operators must enter the oven or when the oven is not in service? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(3)(iii)(b)]
- Is a main disconnect switch or circuit breaker provided for electrical heating equipment? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(8)(iii)]
- Is this switch or circuit breaker located where it can be reached quickly and safely? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(8)(iii)]
- Does the main switch or circuit breaker have provisions for locking it in the open position if any work must be performed on the electrical equipment or inside the oven? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(8)(iii)]
- Are all protective devices properly maintained and kept in working order? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(i)]
- Are all safety devices on ovens inspected at least twice a month by an especially appointed, properly instructed person, and at least once a year by a qualified representative of an oven manufacturer? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(ii)]
- Is protection of the gas pilot light provided when it is impracticable to protect the main flame of the burner and if the pilot flame cannot contact the flame electrode without being in the path of the main flame of the burner? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(iii)(a)]
Note: Failure of any gas pilot should automatically shutoff the fuel supply to the burner.
- Are ovens with multiple burners equipped with individual atmospheric pilot lights if sufficient secondary air is in the baking chamber where gas is available; or, is each burner equipped with an electric spark-type ignition device? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(iii)(b)]
- When fuel is supplied and used at line pressure, are safety shutoff valves provided in the fuel line leading to the burner? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(v)]
- When fuel is supplied in excess of line pressure, are safety shutoff valves provided in the fuel line leading to the burners? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(v)(a)]
Note: The fuel supply lines may be equipped with other automatic valves that prevent the flow of fuel when the compressing equipment is stopped.
- Is the safety shutoff valve positively tight and tested at least twice monthly? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(v)(b)]
- Does the safety shutoff valve require manual operation for reopening after it has closed, or is the electric circuit arranged so that it requires a manual operation to reopen the safety shutoff valve? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(v)(e)]
- Is the manual reset-type safety shutoff valve arranged so that it cannot be locked in an open position by external means? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(v)(f)]
- If blowers are used for supplying the air for combustion, is the safety shutoff valve interlocked so that it will close in case of air failure? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(v)(g)]
- If gas or electric ignition is used, does the safety shutoff valve close in case of ignition failure? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(v)(h)]
- On burners equipped with combustion safeguards, does the valve close in case of burner flame failure? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(v)(h)]
- Is one main, manually operated, fuel shutoff valve provided on each oven and located closer to the source of the fuel than all other valves in the system? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(vi)]
- Is any space in an oven (except direct-fired ovens) that could be filled with an explosive mixture protected by explosion vents? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(viii)]
- Are explosion doors that have substantial weight attached by chains or similar means to prevent flying parts from injuring people in case of an explosion? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(viii)(a)]
- If explosion vents are located so that flying parts or gas might endanger people on or near the oven, are heavily constructed shields or deflectors made from noncombustible material provided? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(viii)(b)]
- If the gas supply pressure is substantially higher than that at which the burner oven can operate, is a gas-pressure regulator used? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(xi)]
- Is a relief valve placed on the outlet side of gas-pressure regulators where gas is supplied at high pressure? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(xi)(d)]
- Is the discharge from the relief valve piped to the outside of the building? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(9)(xi)(d)]
- Are direct-fired ovens safeguarded against failure of fuel, air, or ignition? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(10)(i)]
- Is each circulating fan in direct recirculating ovens interconnected with the burner in such a manner that the fuel is shut off by a safety valve when the fan is not running? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(11)(i)]
- Is the flame of the burner or burners in direct recirculating ovens protected by a quick-acting, flame-sensitive safeguard that will automatically shut off the fuel supply in case of burner failure? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(11)(ii)]
- Are duct systems (in indirect recirculating ovens) operating under pressure tested for tightness in the initial starting of the oven and at intervals of six months or less? [29 CFR 1910.263(l)(15)(iii)]