Articles and Key Findings about Children’s Mental Health

Key Findings

Mental health symptoms in school-aged children
A CDC study examined mental health symptoms in four different U.S. school districts during 2014–2018.
(Published September 4, 2020)

Gaps in helping adolescents with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders make the transition to adult health care
A CDC study found that in 2016–2017, most adolescents with mental, behavioral, or developmental disorders (MBDDs) did not receive the recommended support from their healthcare providers to help them transition from pediatric care to adult care.
(Published August 27, 2020)

Characteristics Related to Having Pediatric Mental Healthcare Policies in Emergency Departments
Learn about factors related to whether U.S. emergency departments (EDs) have policies in place to care for children with mental health and social concerns.
(Published: November 18, 2019)

Anxiety and Depression in Children
Learn about diagnosis, treatment, and impact of anxiety and depression in U.S. children.
(Published: April 24, 2018)

Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Problems – What Works?
Learn about current evidence on the most effective treatments for behavior problems in children.
(Published: May 1, 2017)

Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders in Early Childhood.
Learn about family, community and health-care factors related to children’s mental, behavioral or developmental disorder.
(Published: March 10, 2016)

Children’s Mental Health Report
Learn about the CDC report that describes federal activities that track U.S. children’s mental disorders.
(Published: May 16, 2013)

Feature Articles

Needle fears and phobia
Find ways to manage needle fears
(Published: December 6, 2021)

Back to school for kids
Children and parents need help with the transition back to school
(Published: June 25, 2021)

Mental health of children and parents —a strong connection
The mental health of children is connected to their parents’ mental health.
(Published: April 22, 2021)

Supporting Parents To Help Children Thrive
Learn how CDC helps parents get the support and information they need.
(Published: May 4, 2020)

Your Child Is At Risk for Mental Health Issues After a Disaster
Learn the signs of children’s mental stress to help them cope after a disaster.
(Published: January 13, 2020)

Anxiety and Depression in Children: Get the facts
Learn the facts about anxiety and depression in children.
(Published: May 6, 2019)

Helping Children Thrive in Rural Communities
Learn about data on children with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders in rural and urban areas.
(Published: March 12, 2019)

Improving Children’s Behavioral Health
Learn what CDC is doing about gaps in behavioral treatment for children.
(Published: January 29, 2019)

Recent Scientific Articles

Evidence base review of couple‐ and family‐based psychosocial interventions to promote infant and early childhood mental health, 2010–2019
Jennifer W. Kaminski, Lara R. Robinson, Helena J. Hutchins, Kimberly B. Newsome, Caroline M. Barry
Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. Published online November 16, 2021
[Read summaryexternal icon]

Short Sleep Duration Among Infants, Children, and Adolescents Aged 4 Months–17 Years — United States, 2016–2018
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2021; 70(38)
Anne G. Wheaton  & Angelika H. Claussen
[Read article]

Fathers and Families: Risk and Resilience. An Introduction
Adversity and Resilience Science, 2021;2:63-69
Hiram E. Fitzgerald, Lara R. Robinson, Natasha Cabrera, Leonie Segal
[Read summaryexternal icon]

Associations of Mental Health Among Parents and Other Primary Caregivers with Child Health Indicators: Analysis of Caregivers, by Sex—National Survey of Children’s Health, 2016–2018
Adversity and Resilience Science, 2021;2:125–139.
Sara Beth Wolicki, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Robyn A. Cree  Melissa L. Danielson, Jean Ko, Lee Warner, Lara R. Robinson
[Read summaryexternal icon]

Factors Associated with Self-regulation in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children Ages 3–5 Years: United States, 2016
Maternal and Child Health Journal, published online November 21, 2020
Angelika H. Claussen, Lara R. Robinson, Jennifer W. Kaminski, Sana Charania, Joseph R. Holbrook, Marvin So, Reem Ghandour, Camille Smith, Ashley Satterfield-Nash, Georgina Peacock & Coleen Boyle
[Read articleexternal icon]

Mental Health–Related Emergency Department Visits Among Children Aged <18 Years During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, January 1–October 17, 2020
MMWR, 2020;69:1675–1680
Rebecca T. Leeb, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Lakshmi Radhakrishnan, Pedro Martinez, Rashid Njai, Kristin M. Holland
[Read article]

Support for Transition from Adolescent to Adult Health Care Among Adolescents With and Without Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders — United States, 2016–2017.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2020, 69(34);1156–1160.
Rebecca T. Leeb, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Robyn A. Cree, Shana Godfred-Cato, Michelle Hughes, Patrick Powell, Bradley Firchow; Laura C. Hart, Lydie A. Lebrun-Harris.
[Read article]

Community-based prevalence of externalizing and internalizing disorders among school-aged children and adolescents in four geographically dispersed school districts in the United States.
Child Psychiatry & Human Development. Published online July 31, 2020
Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, Sana N. Charania, Angelika H. Claussen, Robert E. McKeown, Steven P. Cuffe, Julie Sarno Owens, Steven W. Evans, Lorraine Kubicek & Kate Flory
[Read summaryexternal icon]

Trends over Time and Jurisdiction Variability in Supplemental Security Income and State Supplementary Payment Programs for Children with Disabilities
Journal of Public Health Management & Practice. Published online February 17, 2020
Lara R. Robinson, Russell F. McCord, Lindsay K. Cloud, Jennifer W. Kaminski, Amy Cook, Jessica Amoroso, Maya Hazarika Watts, Kim Kotzky, Caroline M. Barry, Rebecca Johnson, Kelly J. Kelleher.
[Read summaryexternal icon]

Characteristics Associated With Presence of Pediatric Mental Health Care Policies in Emergency Departments.
Pediatric Emergency Care. November 13, 2019.
Robyn A Cree, Marvin So, Jessica L. Franks, Rachel M. Richards, Rebecca T. Leeb, Andrew Hashikawa, Steven Krug, Lorah Ludwig, Lenora M. Olson.
[Read articleexternal icon] [Read key findings]

Health care, family, and community factors associated with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders and poverty among children aged 2–8 years — United States, 2016.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2018;67(5):1377-1383.
Robyn A. Cree, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Lara R. Robinson, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, Camille Smith, Jennifer W. Kaminski, Mary Kay Kenney, Georgina Peacock
[Read article]

Policy levers to promote access to and utilization of children’s mental health services: A systematic review
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. Published online January 3, 2019.
Marvin So, Russell McCord, Jennifer W. Kaminski
[Read articleexternal icon]

Prevalence and treatment of depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in US children
Journal of Pediatrics. 2019; 206, 256–267.e3
Reem M. Ghandour, Laura J. Sherman, Catherine J. Vladutiu, Mir M. Ali, Sean E. Lynch, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Stephen J. Blumberg
[Read articleexternal icon]

Prevalence of parent-reported traumatic brain injury in children and associated health conditions.
JAMA Pediatrics. 2018;172(11):1078-1086.
Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa, Akilah Heggs Lee, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Xinjian Zhang, Marcie-jo Kresnow-Sedacca.
[Read summaryexternal icon]

Epidemiology and impact of healthcare provider diagnosed anxiety and depression among US children.
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 2018;39(5), 395–403.
Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, Reem M. Ghandour, Stephen J. Blumberg, Susanna N. Visser, Ruth Perou, John Walkup.
[Read articleexternal icon] [Read key findings]

Evidence base update for psychosocial treatment of disruptive behaviors in children.
Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2017, 46:4, 477-499
Jennifer W. Kaminski & Angelika H. Claussen
[Read articleexternal icon] [Read key findings]

Differences in Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders Among Children Aged 2–8 Years in Rural and Urban Areas —United States, 2011–2012
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Surveillance Summaries 2017 ;66(No. SS-8):1–11.
Lara R. Robinson, Joseph R. Holbrook, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Sophie A. Hartwig, Jennifer W. Kaminski, Reem M. Ghandour, Georgina Peacock, Akilah Heggs, Coleen A. Boyle
[Read article] [Read key findings]

Behavioral Health Integration in Pediatric Primary Care: Considerations and Opportunities for Policymakers, Planners, and Providers
Milbank Memorial Fund, March 2017
Elizabeth Tobin Tyler, Rachel L. Hulkower, and Jennifer W. Kaminski
[Read article pdf icon[326, KB, 25 pages]external icon] [Read summaryexternal icon]

Interpreting the Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children: Tribulation and Triangulation
Health Promotion Practice. 2017; 18( 1), 5–7.
Joseph R. Holbrook, Rebecca H. Bitsko,  Melissa L. Danielson, Susanna N. Visser
[Read articleexternal icon]

Health-care, Family, and Community Factors associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders in Early Childhood – United States, 2011-2012.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2016 Mar 11; 65(9);221–226.
Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, Jennifer W. Kaminski, Lara R. Robinson, Reem Ghandour, Camille Smith, Georgina Peacock
[Read article] [Read key findings]

Demographic Differences Among a National Sample of US Youth With Behavioral Disorders
Clinical Pediatrics, 2016; 55(14), 1358-1362.
Susanna N. Visser, Emily L. Deubler, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, and Melissa L. Danielson,
[Read extractexternal icon]

Mental Health Surveillance Among Children, United States 2005–2011
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2013;62(Suppl; May 16, 2013):1-35.
[Read article] [Read key findings]