Thyroid Cancer

Diagram described below.

Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland lies at the base of the throat near the trachea. It is shaped like a butterfly, with the right lobe and left lobe connected by a thin piece of tissue called the isthmus. The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized organs found in the neck near the thyroid. The thyroid and parathyroid glands make hormones.

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Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the thyroid gland, it is called thyroid cancer. Every year, about 12,000 men and 33,000 women get thyroid cancer, and about 950 men and 1,100 women die from the disease.

What Is the Thyroid?

The thyroid gland (also called simply the thyroid) is located in front of the neck. It looks sort of like a butterfly with one wing on each side of the neck. The thyroid is important in many ways for keeping your body healthy. It sends out certain chemicals (hormones) that help control many activities in the body, such as breathing and pumping blood. The thyroid helps children’s bodies develop as they grow up, including getting taller and putting on muscle. It helps control weight and is also involved in other functions.

What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

Scientists are not completely sure about what causes thyroid cancer, but some things that may make getting thyroid cancer more likely include—

  • Getting too much radiation around the neck area, especially when you are young.
  • Having certain genetic conditions inherited from parents.

What Are the Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer?

  • A lump or swelling on the side of the neck is the most common symptom.
  • Having trouble breathing.
  • Having trouble swallowing.
  • Having a hoarse voice.

These symptoms can also come from other conditions. If you have any of these symptoms, talk to your doctor right away. Don’t wait until the symptoms get worse.

How Can I Reduce My Risk for Thyroid Cancer?

To lower the risk of thyroid cancer, avoid unnecessary exposure to radiation, including radiation from medical imaging procedures, especially in young children, and especially around the head and neck.


The Data Visualizations tool makes it easy for anyone to explore and use the latest official federal government cancer data from United States Cancer Statistics. It includes the latest cancer data covering the U.S. population.

Map of the United States.
See rates or numbers of new thyroid cancers or thyroid cancer deaths for the entire United States and individual states. Also, see the top 10 cancers for men and women.
Bar chart of demographics.
See rates or numbers of new thyroid cancers or thyroid cancer deaths by race/ethnicity, sex, and age group.
Line chart of trends.
See how the rates of new thyroid cancers or thyroid cancer deaths changed over time for the entire United States and individual states.
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