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Swine Flu

In 1976, a national influenza campaign was designed to immunize nearly the entire United States population in fear of an influenza pandemic. However, the A/New Jersey/1976/H1N1 vaccine, also known as the "swine flu" vaccine, was found to be linked with the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and the program ended. This study was conducted to find the relationship between the vaccine and GBS effects.

In 2004 investigators at CDC collaborated with the department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, and the Department of Microbiology, National University of Ireland, Galway, to investigate anti-ganglioside antibody induction by swine flu and other influenza vaccines.

The following article explains the Immunization Safety Office's role in this initiative.

  • "Swine Flu and Associated Guillain-Barré Syndrome"
    This study covers the methods, hypotheses, results, and limitations studied in regards to the swine flu vaccination. The study focuses on the immunization to the swine flu and how it was found to be linked to Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS).

Complete List of Articles

"Guillain-Barré syndrome following vaccination in the national influenza immunization program, United States, 1976-1977" by L.B. Schonberger. Am J Epidemiol 1979 Aug;110(2):105-23.

"An epidemiologic an clinical evaluation of Guillain-Barré syndrome reported in association with the administration of swine influenza vaccines" by A.D. Langmuir, D.J. Bregman, L.T. Kurland, N. Nathanson, and M. Victor. Am J Epidemiol 1984 Jun;119(6):841-79.

"Guillain-Barré syndrome and its relationship to swine influenza vaccination in Michigan, 1976-1977" by JG Breman and JG Hayner. Am J Epidemiol 1984 Jun; 119(6):880-9.

"Reassessment of the association between Guillain-Barré syndrome and receipt of swine influenza vaccine in 1976-1977: results of a two-state study" by TJ Safranek. Am J Epidemiol 1991 May 1;133(9):940-51.

"National surveillance for Guillain-Barré syndrome: January 1978-March 1979" by ES Hurwitz, RC Holman, D.B. Nelson, and L.B. Schonberger. Neurology 1983 Feb;33(2):150-7.

"Guillain-Barré syndrome" by R.A. Hughs and DR Cornblath. Lancet 2005 Nov 5;366(9497):1653-66.

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