Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) for Pneumococcal Vaccines for Immunocompromised Adults
GRADE was used to evaluate 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for routine use among immunocompromised adults.
Evidence of benefits, harms, values and preferences, and cost-effectiveness were reviewed in accordance with GRADE methods. The primary policy question was "Should PCV13 be administered routinely to adults with immunocompromising conditions?" For consistency, evidence for both PPSV23 (recommended for use since 1983) and PCV13 were evaluated by applying the GRADE framework. Due to the limited body of evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety among persons with most immunocompromising conditions, both vaccines were evaluated using data for HIV-infected adults. Additionally, studies with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were used as a proxy when no PCV13 studies were available; PCV7 has the same formulation as PCV13 but contains 6 fewer antigens. The benefits considered critical outcomes in GRADE included prevention of death, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumococcal pneumonia, hospitalizations due to pneumococcal disease, and vaccine-induced immunogenicity was considered an important outcome. The harms considered were serious adverse events and systemic adverse events. Evidence type for each critical or important outcome was derived through a review of study design, risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, and imprecision.
Evidence used to evaluate efficacy of PCV13 to prevent IPD was from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of PCV7 among HIV-infected adults in Malawi. Evidence was not available for critical outcomes of pneumonia, hospitalizations, or deaths. Immunogenicity of PCV13 compared to PPSV23 was evaluated based on 2 phase III RCTs among healthy adults and 4 RCTs of PCV7 in HIV-infected adults.[4-7] Safety of PCV13 was evaluated based on 6 RCTs in immunocompetent adults.
The evidence used to evaluate efficacy of PPSV23 compared to placebo against IPD, pneumonia, and deaths was drawn from one RCT among HIV-infected adults in Uganda as well as 9 observational studies in the United States and Europe.[9-17] Evidence was not available for the critical outcome of hospitalization due to pneumococcal disease. Immunogenicity was evaluated in 2 RCTs and 2 observational studies among HIV-infected people.[4, 7, 18-20] Safety was assessed by review of post-licensure surveillance data.
|Outcome||No. subjects (# studies)||Incidence in unvaccinated (cases/100,000)||Incidence in vaccinated unvaccinated (cases/100,000)||Vaccine efficacy (95% CI)||unvaccinated (cases/100,000)d||Number needed to vaccinate|
|Invasive Pneumococcal Diseasea||496 (1 RCT, HIV+ adults, Malawi)||64c||17d||74% (30, 90)b||47d||2128d|
|Immunogenicity- Antibody response to vaccine serotypes|
|Outcome||No. subjects (# studies)||Incidence in unvaccinated (cases/100,000)||Incidence in vaccinated unvaccinated (cases/100,000)||Results|
|GMTe ratios||PCV13 phase III studies in immunocompetent adults|
|1 RCT||370||370||Statistically significantly greater for PCV13 vs. PPSV23 for 9/13 serotypes; non-inferior response for all types|
|1 RCT||462||462||Statistically significantly greater for PCV13 vs. PPSV23 for 11/13 serotypes; non-inferior response for all types|
|PCV7, in HIV+ adults|
|% with ≥4-fold increase in GMTe||1 RCT||15||16||GMTs higher for PCV7 vs. PPSV23 (stat. significance not assessed post 1st dose); % with ≥4-fold increase in GMT higher for PCV7 vs. PPSV23 for 4/5 serotypes (stat. significant for 1/4)|
|% with ≥2-fold rise in IgGf levels and >1ug/ml)||1 RCT||106||106||No significant difference in outcome between PCV7 and PPSV (ORg: 1.36, 95%CI 0.82-2.25)|
|1 RCT||102||100||No significant difference in outcome between PCV7 and PPSV|
|1 RCT||131||73||Greater response for PCV7 vs PPSV (57% vs 36%, respectively; OR: 2.6 [95% CI, 1.4– 5.0])|
| RCT, Randomized Controlled Trial.
a Caused by vaccine serotypes or type 6A
b Intention-to-treat analysis (vaccine efficacy estimated using hazard ratios)
c Incidence of PCV13 type IPD among adults with HIV/AIDS in the US, Active Bacterial Core surveillance, CDC unpublished 2009
d Incidence in vaccinated, absolute risk, and number needed to vaccinate was estimated using VE estimate from RCT and applying it to baseline incidence of PCV13 type IPD in the US population with HIV/AIDS
RCT and applying it to baseline incidence of PCV13 type IPD in the US population with HIV/AIDS
e GMT= Geometric Mean Titers
f IgG= immunoglobulin
g odds ratio
|Outcome||No. of subjects (# studies)||Incidence in controls||Incidence in vaccinated||Risk Difference per 1000 (95% CI)|
|Serious adverse events (SAE)|
|Overall SAE||6,000||N/A||0.2-1.1%||No differencea|
|Deaths||6,000||N/A||16/6000 (0.003%)b||No differencea|
|Systemic Adverse Events|
|Fatigue||3 RCTs; PCV13 phase IIIc||43.3%||34.0%||-9.3 (-16.4, -2.2)|
|Rash||16.4%||7.3%||-9.1 (-14.3, -4.0)|
|New generalized muscle pain||44.7%||36.8%||-7.9 (-15.2,-0.6)|
|Use of medications to treat fever||17.5%||8.6%||-8.9 (-16.6,-1.9)|
|Mild, self-limited secondary effects||1 RCT||20%||34%||P=0.07|
|3 RCTs[4, 5, 18]||No serious adverse events; no differences in systemic adverse events reported|
N/A= not applicable
Summary: Benefits are greater than potential harms. High values were placed on prevention of the morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal infection among immunocompromised adults. (recommendation category B; evidence type 2/3)
|Risk of bias||Inconsistency||Indirectness||Imprecision||Evidence typea|
|Death||RCT (1)[8, 22]||Seriousb||N/A||Very seriousc||Not serious||3|
|IPDd||RCT (1)||Not serious||N/A||Very seriousc||Not serious||3|
|Observational (6)[9-13, 17]||Seriouse||Not serious||Not serious||Not serious||4|
|Pneumonia||RCT (1)||Not serious||N/A||Very seriousc||Not serious||3|
|Observational (5)[11, 12, 14-16]||Seriouse||Seriousf||Not serious||Not serious||4|
|Antibody response to vaccine types||RCT (2)[4, 7]||Not serious||Not serious||Seriousg||Not serious||2|
|Observational (2)[19, 20]||Not serious||Not serious||Seriousg||Not serious||3|
|Systemic adverse events||Post-licensure surveillance||Not serious||Not serious||Not serious||N/A||3|
b Inconsistent findings of the initial trial and a follow up study. Mortality assessed during a follow up study (Watera et al) showed improved mortality among vaccine recipients while initial study (French et al) had a null finding with respect to mortality
Summary: Benefits are likely greater than harms. High values were placed on prevention of the morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal infection among immunocompromised adults.(recommendation category B; evidence type 3/4)
The ACIP Pneumococcal Work Group concluded that broader serotype protection can be achieved through use of both PCV13 and PPSV23 among immunocompomised adults; half of IPD in immunocompromised adults is caused by PCV13 serotypes, and an additional 21% by serotypes in PPSV23 not included in PCV13. Evidence from immunogenicity studies demonstrate that antibody response is non-inferior or superior when PCV is given before PPSV23 compared to PPSV23 administration before PCV.[5, 6, 18] Although the optimal interval for PCV13 followed by PPSV23 has not been specifically studied, significant increases in antibody as well as non-inferior to superior response compared to PPSV23 alone has been observed when PPSV23 was given eight weeks after PCV7. For adults previously immunized with PPSV23, waiting at least 1 year after PPSV23 before giving a dose of PCV13 may provide a better immune response (expert opinion).
The Work Group concluded that Category A recommendation for the use of both PCV13 (evidence type 2/3) and PPSV23 (evidence type 3/4) among immunocompromised adults. Category A, (desirable consequences clearly outweigh undesirable consequences) is warranted because 1) there remains an extremely high burden of pneumococcal disease among immuocompromised adults; 2) indirect effects of PCV13 use in children are unlikely to eliminate PCV13 serotypes from the adult immunocompromised population, and 3) the GRADE process led to the conclusion that both PCV13 and PPSV23 are effective in this group & that benefits likely outweigh harms.
- Ahmed F, Temte JL, Campos-Outcalt D, Schünemann HJ. Methods for developing evidence-based recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vaccine. 2011;29(49):9171-9176.
- French N, Gordon SB, Mwalukomo T, et al. A trial of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected adults. N Engl J Med. Mar 4 2010;362(9):812-822.
- Food and Drug Administration. FDA expands use of Prevnar 13 vaccine for people ages 50 and older. Silver Spring, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. 2011. Accessed May 21, 2012.
- Feikin DR, Elie CM, Goetz MB, et al. Randomized trial of the quantitative and functional antibody responses to a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and/or 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine among HIV-infected adults. Vaccine. Nov 12 2002;20(3-4):545-553.
- Lesprit P, Pedrono G, Molina JM, et al. Immunological efficacy of a prime-boost pneumococcal vaccination in HIV-infected adults. AIDS. Nov 30 2007;21(18):2425-2434.
- Penaranda Ma, Payeras Ab, Cambra Ac, Mila Jc, Riera Ma, the Majorcan Pneumococcal Study G. Conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines do not improve initial response of the polysaccharide vaccine in HIV-infected adults. AIDS. 2010;24(8):1226-1228.
- Crum-Cianflone NF, Huppler Hullsiek K, Roediger M, et al. A randomized clinical trial comparing revaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to polysaccharide vaccine among HIV-infected adults. J Infect Dis. Oct 1 2010;202(7):1114-1125.
- French N, Nakiyingi J, Carpenter L. 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults: double-blind, randomised and placebo controlled trial. Lancet. 2000;355:2106 -2111.
- Breiman R, Keller D, Phelan M. Evaluation of effectiveness of the 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine for HIV-infected patients. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2633 -2638.
- Grau I, Pallares R, Tubau F, et al. Epidemiologic changes in bacteremic pneumococcal disease in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1533 -1540.
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- Lopez-Palomo C, Martin-Zamorano M, Benitez E, et al. Pneumonia in HIV-infected patients in the HAART era: Incidence, risk, and impact of the pneumococcal vaccination. J Med Virol. 2004;72:517 -524.
- Veras M, Enanoria W, Castilho E, Reingold A. Effectiveness of the polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine among HIV-infected persons in Brazil: a case control study. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2007;7(1):119.
- Penaranda M, Falco V, Payeras A, et al. Effectiveness of polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine in HIV-infected patients: a case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. Oct 1 2007;45(7):e82-87.
- Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Goulet J, Brown S, et al. Impact of pneumococcal vaccination on the incidence of pneumonia by HIV infection status among patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort 5-Site Study. Clin Infect Dis. Apr 1 2008;46(7):1093-1100.
- Teshale EH, Hanson D, Flannery B, et al. Effectiveness of 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine on pneumonia in HIV-infected adults in the United States, 1998--2003. Vaccine. Oct 29 2008;26(46):5830-5834.
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- Feikin DR, Elie CM, Goetz MB, et al. Specificity of the antibody response to the pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. Jan 2004;11(1):137-141.
- Huang K-L, Ruben FL, Rinaldo CR, Kingsley L, Lyter DW, Ho M. Antibody Responses After Influenza and Pneumococcal Immunization in HIV-Infected Homosexual Men. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. April 17, 1987 1987;257(15):2047-2050.
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of pneumococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. Apr 4 1997;46(RR-8):1-24.
- Watera C, Nakiyingi J, Miiro G, et al. 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults: 6-year follow-up of a clinical trial cohort. AIDS. 2004;18:1210 -1213.
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