Surveillance and Reporting
Following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, dramatic declines in invasive pneumococcal disease were reported among children less than 5 years old. Before introduction of PCV7, rates of PCV7-type invasive pneumococcal disease among children in this age were around 80 cases per 100,000 population. After the introduction of PCV7, rates of disease due to these 7 serotypes dropped dramatically to less than 1 case per 100,000 by 2007 and continues to be low (see Figure 1 below).
The use of PCV7 also reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease among older children and adults through reduced transmission of vaccine serotype pneumococci (herd protection). Declines in the incidence of PCV7-type invasive disease among adults were seen as early as 2001 and have continued since that time, reducing the incidence to 64-77% below the 1998-1999 baseline, depending on age. Increases in disease caused by serotypes not included in PCV7 (i.e., replacement disease) are evident in children and certain adult populations with underlying illnesses but are small in magnitude compared with the overall reduction in disease. With the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), cases of invasive disease due to the additional serotypes covered by PCV13 but not by PCV7 also decreased substantially (see Figure 2 below).Top of Page
Invasive pneumococcal disease is nationally notifiable and cases should be reported to the appropriate health department. Invasive pneumococcal disease cases are reported by states to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Some regions in the United States also use Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs), a core component of CDC’s Emerging Infections Programs (EIP) network, to report cases. Non-invasive pneumococcal disease, like ear and sinus infections, are not reported through either surveillance system.
National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System
Invasive pneumococcal disease cases are reported by states to CDC through NNDSS. Both suspected and confirmed cases should be reported nationally.
- NNDSS 2010 Case Definition: Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD, Streptococcus pneumoniae, invasive disease)
- NNDSS 2007 Case Definition: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Invasive Disease Non-Drug Resistant, in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age (Invasive Pneumococcal Disease)
Active Bacterial Core surveillance
Invasive pneumococcal disease cases are reported by some regions in the United States through ABCs. ABCs is an active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance system for invasive bacterial pathogens of public health importance. ABCs data have been used to track disease trends, including the decline in pneumococcal disease following the introduction of the pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Top of Page
- Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs): Surveillance Reports
- Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases—Chapter on Pneumococcal Disease
- Publications, including ACIP Recommendations
2009 Position Statement from the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) [7 pages]
CSTE’s 2009 position statement focuses on enhancing state-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease.
- CSTE List of Nationally Notifiable Conditions and Timeframe for Notification [2 pages]
- CSTE Reporting Requirements by State
- Healthy People 2020
- Page last reviewed: June 10, 2015
- Page last updated: June 10, 2015
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