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CDC Science Clips: April 30 - May 4, 2012

Vol. 4, Issue: 18, 5/7/12
 
Welcome to Science Clips, CDC's weekly digest!
 
The report consists of four components:

Reducing HIV transmission in both domestic and international settings remains a public health priority. DR Holtgrave from Johns Hopkins University, writing with CDC colleagues, estimates that the U.S. HIV transmission rate may be at a "historically low level". DJ Jamieson, writing for the BAN study team, finds in a nearly year-long follow up study in Malawi that giving antiretroviral prophylaxis to mothers or infants might decrease HIV transmission in settings where there are no options besides breastfeeding.

Other articles this week focusing on maternal and child health include the analysis by SW Patrick et al published in JAMA. The authors document increases in neonatal abstinence syndrome and maternal opiate use during the period from 2000-2009. DR Feikin, working with CDC Kenya investigators as well as industry and non-governmental partners, shows efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, a finding that may have important implications for settings where access to healthcare is limited.

Understanding the global burden of non-communicable disease has become increasingly important for CDC and other public health organizations. A study group led by JW Yau finds that approximately 93 million people worldwide have diabetic retinopathy, a potentially vision-threatening condition. W Chen, as part of an international collaboration which includes NIOSH, finds increased mortality across a broad spectrum of conditions among a cohort of Chinese workers exposed to silica dust.

Past and current vaccine-preventable diseases intermingle in several of this week's selections. MB Pearce et al demonstrate that a seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine protects against the 1918 Spanish influenza virus in a ferret model. They write that "…findings suggest that…immunization, may provide protection against the reconstructed 1918 virus which as a select agent is considered to pose both biosafety and biosecurity threats." An investigation of the first laboratory-acquired cowpox investigation in the US, led by EIS officer AM McCollum, emphasizes the importance of occupational exposure history and laboratory support. In another study of importance to occupational health and safety, a serologic study of healthcare workers led by LC Pawloski found no evidence that immunization with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) interferes with serodiagnosis of pertussis.  

Finally, we feature an analysis which builds on previously published CDC recommendations. WS Pearson and several CDC colleagues evaluate the joint CDC/American College of Surgeons Field Triage Guidelines for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI), concluding that pre-hospital triage of patients with TBI can reduce morbidity and mortality.

John Iskander

Editor, Science Clips


Science Clips is a service of the CDC Public Health Library and Information Center and CDC's Office of the Chief Science Officer.


The Science Clips is in the public domain and may be freely forwarded and reproduced without permission. The original sources and the CDC Science Clips should be cited as sources. Articles featured in Science Clips may be in-press or uncorrected proofs.

For assistance in obtaining copies of these articles, contact the library at cdclibrary@cdc.gov or 404-639-1717. Please note that links below to CDC licensed materials are available only through the Intranet and may go through the SFX server. From the SFX window, just click on the full-text link to reach the full-text.

  1. Top Ten Articles of the Week
  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
  3. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas
  4. Public Health Articles Noted in the Media

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the CDC Public Health Library and Information Center to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.


 

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