Table 9D
2011 Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance (1)
Nation
Maternal Health Indicators by Race/Ethnicity, Age, or Education


Maternal Health Indicators by Race/Ethnicity (2)
Prepregnancy BMI (3)
Race/Ethnicity

Number Included
in Analysis

Underweight
%

Overweight
%

White, Not Hispanic 395,327 5.1

51.5

Black, Not Hispanic 202,870 3.8

59.3

Hispanic 290,441 3.5

55.4

American Indian/Alaska Native 10,987 2.9

62.4

Asian/Pacific Islander 35,855 9.2

30.7

Multiple Races 14,491 4.8

52.5

All Other/Unknown 3,711 5.0

49.0

Total 953,682 4.5

53.7

Weight Gain (4)
Race/Ethnicity

Number Included
in Analysis

< Ideal
%

> Ideal
%

White, Not Hispanic 311,094 18.5

51.7

Black, Not Hispanic 150,807 23.2

47.8

Hispanic 203,442 22.6

44.5

American Indian/Alaska Native 8,363 20.2

49.9

Asian/Pacific Islander 30,302 26.3

32.3

Multiple Races 11,633 18.7

52.9

All Other/Unknown 2,458 22.1

48.7

Total 718,099 21.0

48.0

Anemia (Low Hb/Hct) (5)
Race/Ethnicity

3rd Trimester Number
Included in Analysis

3rd Trimester
%

Postpartum Number
Included in Analysis

Postpartum
%

White, Not Hispanic 61,050 27.0 128,360 21.5
Black, Not Hispanic 35,099 49.5 48,763 46.1
Hispanic 36,980 30.8 84,720 28.7
American Indian/Alaska Native 1,806 33.6 4,887 32.6
Asian/Pacific Islander 4,784 29.7 10,018 26.5
Multiple Races 2,185 31.3 4,843 24.6
All Other/Unknown 659 36.0 1,023 34.8
Total 142,563 33.8 282,614 28.3

Gestational Diabetes
Race/Ethnicity

Number Included
in Analysis

%

White, Not Hispanic 202,537 5.6
Black, Not Hispanic 81,678 5.0
Hispanic 119,111 5.7
American Indian/Alaska Native 7,886 7.8
Asian/Pacific Islander 21,775 8.2
Multiple Races 7,735 5.7
All Other/Unknown 485 1.9
Total 441,207 5.7

Hypertension During Pregnancy
Race/Ethnicity

Number Included
in Analysis

%

White, Not Hispanic 201,650 7.5
Black, Not Hispanic 81,659 9.0
Hispanic 114,304 4.4
American Indian/Alaska Native 7,465 7.3
Asian/Pacific Islander 21,833 2.4
Multiple Races 7,592 7.4
All Other/Unknown 476 0.4
Total 434,979 6.7

Maternal Health Indicators by Age (2)
Prepregnancy BMI (3)
Age

Number Included
in Analysis

Underweight
%

Overweight
%

< 15 Years 2,267 9.1

26.7

15 - 17 Years 45,576 8.6

32.8

18 - 19 Years 103,116 7.2

40.9

20 - 29 Years 568,428 4.6

53.4

30 - 39 Years 216,033 2.2

64.1

>= 40 Years 16,892 1.5

68.4

Unknown 1,370 5.9

40.1

Total 953,682 4.5

53.7

Weight Gain (4)
Age

Number Included
in Analysis

< Ideal
%

> Ideal
%

< 15 Years 1,555 23.0

47.1

15 - 17 Years 32,573 21.1

49.3

18 - 19 Years 75,647 19.5

51.4

20 - 29 Years 428,880 20.6

48.6

30 - 39 Years 165,900 22.4

45.5

>= 40 Years 12,517 26.7

40.5

Unknown 1,027 21.7

48.7

Total 718,099 21.0

48.0

Anemia (Low Hb/Hct) (5)
Age

3rd Trimester Number
Included in Analysis

3rd Trimester
%

Postpartum Number
Included in Analysis

Postpartum
%

< 15 Years 383 39.4 617 34.5
15 - 17 Years 6,628 40.2 13,189 35.5
18 - 19 Years 14,998 37.7 30,226 33.2
20 - 29 Years 88,059 33.5 170,398 27.9
30 - 39 Years 30,070 31.4 63,359 25.7
>= 40 Years 2,208 32.2 4,825 26.4
Unknown 217 34.6 0 *
Total 142,563 33.8 282,614 28.3

Gestational Diabetes
Age

Number Included
in Analysis

%

< 15 Years 982 0.8
15 - 17 Years 19,507 1.3
18 - 19 Years 45,710 1.9
20 - 29 Years 264,109 4.6
30 - 39 Years 102,420 10.3
>= 40 Years 7,917 14.3
Unknown 562 3.2
Total 441,207 5.7

Hypertension During Pregnancy
Age

Number Included
in Analysis

%

< 15 Years 945 6.1
15 - 17 Years 19,004 6.1
18 - 19 Years 44,795 6.5
20 - 29 Years 260,563 6.1
30 - 39 Years 101,295 8.0
>= 40 Years 7,818 12.2
Unknown 559 6.4
Total 434,979 6.7

Maternal Health Indicators by Education (2)
Prepregnancy BMI (3)
Education

Number Included
in Analysis

Underweight
%

Overweight
%

< High School 257,403 5.3

51.2

High School 396,056 4.4

54.2

> High School 209,791 3.5

55.0

Unknown 90,432 4.5

55.7

Total 953,682 4.5

53.7

Weight Gain (4)
Education

Number Included
in Analysis

< Ideal
%

> Ideal
%

< High School 189,513 23.8

44.5

High School 323,997 20.6

49.0

> High School 173,245 18.3

51.4

Unknown 31,344 24.1

40.8

Total 718,099 21.0

48.0

Anemia (Low Hb/Hct) (5)
Education

3rd Trimester Number
Included in Analysis

3rd Trimester
%

Postpartum Number
Included in Analysis

Postpartum
%

< High School 36,140 37.8 73,365 31.2
High School 61,066 33.6 115,557 27.7
> High School 34,035 28.9 67,635 23.6
Unknown 11,322 36.3 26,057 35.2
Total 142,563 33.8 282,614 28.3

Gestational Diabetes
Education

Number Included
in Analysis

%

< High School 119,065 5.1
High School 181,953 5.5
> High School 108,924 6.3
Unknown 31,265 6.3
Total 441,207 5.7

Hypertension During Pregnancy
Education

Number Included
in Analysis

%

< High School 116,548 5.6
High School 179,655 6.9
> High School 107,560 7.8
Unknown 31,216 5.8
Total 434,979 6.7
(1) Reporting period is January 1 through December 31.
(2) Excludes records with unknown data for health indicators, and data with errors for health and demographic indicators.
(3) Based on 2009 IOM report, "Weight Gain During Pregnancy": underweight (BMI <18.5), normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9), obese (BMI >30.0).
(4) Based on 2009 IOM report, "Weight Gain During Pregnancy": underweight during pregnancy (ideal weight gain = 28 to 40 pounds), normal weight prepregnancy
 (ideal weight gain = 25 to 35 pounds), overweight prepregnancy (ideal weight gain = 15 to 25 pounds), obese prepregnancy (ideal weight gain = 11 to 20 pounds).
(5) Based on 1990 MMWR, "Recommendations to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency in the United States"; adjusted for altitude and smoking.
* Percentages are not calculated if <100 records are available for analysis after exclusions.