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ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II

Figure 1 shows a total of 68,376 good responders that completed the 2001 supplemental questionnaire (75% of those women who were originally mailed this questionnaire). Of these women, a total of 15,374 women did not have a single live birth and were removed from the study population. This left a total of 53,002 women who had a single live birth. Of this group of women, we removed the 238 women had a diagnosis of diabetes at or under 30 years of age, as well as 31 women who were diagnosed with diabetes within the one year following their first pregnancy. The remaining 52,733 women who were not diagnosed with diabetes at or under age 30 years or who were not diagnosed with diabetes within the year were included. Among these 52,733 women, we excluded 1,005 women with missing covariate information. This final exclusion resulted in a final sample size of 51,728 participants analyzed in this study.

Figure 1. Characteristics of the study population, 2001 Nurses’ Health Study II supplemental questionnaire.

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Total Number of Diabetes Cases in 5-Year Intervals Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
5 years, n = 52
Very preterm, n = 20.93 (0.22–3.93)
Moderate preterm, n = 91.96 (0.93–4.13)
Term, n = 381 [Reference]
Postterm, n = 31.00 (0.30–3.29)
10 years, n = 175
Very preterm, n = 50.89 (0.36–2.18)
Moderate preterm, n = 261.82 (1.19–2.80)
Term, n = 1281 [Reference]
Postterm, n = 161.19 (0.71–2.01)
15 years, n = 314
Very preterm, n = 141.70 (0.99–2.92)
Moderate preterm, n = 271.13 (0.76–1.69)
Term, n = 2411 [Reference]
Post term, n = 321.07 (0.74–1.55)
20 years, n = 416
Very preterm, n = 80.70 (0.34–1.41)
Moderate preterm, n = 310.98 90.68–1.42)
Term, n = 3231 [Reference]
Postterm, n = 541.23 (0.92–1.64)
25 years, n = 456
Very preterm, n = 171.57 (0.96–2.56)
Moderate preterm, n = 291.00 (0.69–1.47)
Term, n = 3521 [Reference]
Postterm, n = 581.14 (0.86–1.51)
30 years, n = 375
Very preterm, n = 141.67 (0.97–2.84)
Moderate preterm, n = 200.90 (0.57–1.41)
Term, n = 2921 [Reference]
Postterm, n = 491.19 (0.88-1.61)
35 years, n = 204
Very preterm, n = 81.79 (0.88–3.65)
Moderate preterm, n = 141.32 (0.76–2.29)
Term, n = 1581 [Reference]
Postterm, n = 241.16 (0.75-–.79)


Figure 2.
Association between gestational age and incidence of type 2 diabetes by 5-year intervals following first pregnancy adjusted for age at first birth, age at baseline Nurses’ Health Study II, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, family history of diabetes, menstrual irregularity, smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable.

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Total Number of Diabetes Cases in 5-Year IntervalsAdjusted Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
5 years, n = 38NA
Term low birth weight, n = 12.75 (0.37–20.51)
Term normal birth weight, n = 331 [Reference]
Macrosomia, n = 42.82 (0.97–8.18)
10 years, n = 128NA
Term low birth weight, n = 21.19 (0.29–4.86)
Term normal birth weight, n = 1151 [Reference]
Macrosomia, n = 111.99 (1.06–3.75)
15 years, n = 241NA
Term low birth weight, n = 72.36 (1.11–5.03)
Term normal birth weight, n = 2201 [Reference]
Macrosomia, n = 141.79 (1.03–3.10)
20 years, n = 323NA
Term low birth weight, n = 71.64 (0.78–3.49)
Term normal birth weight, n = 3011 [Reference]
Macrosomia, n = 151.79 (1.06–3.03)
25 years, n = 352NA
Term low birth weight, n = 40.72 (0.27–1.94)
Term normal birth weight, n = 3371 [Reference]
Macrosomia, n = 111.69 (0.93–3.09)
30 years, n = 292NA
Term low birth weight, n = 71.28 (0.60–2.71)
Term normal birth weight, n = 2821 [Reference]
Macrosomia, n = 30.71 (0.23–2.22)
35 years, n = 158NA
Term low birth weight, n = 20.67 (0.17–2.71)
Term normal birth weight, n = 1531 [Reference]
Macrosomia, n = 31.25 (0.40–3.95)


Figure 3.
Association between birth weight and type 2 diabetes among term births by 5-year intervals following first pregnancy adjusted for age at first birth, age at baseline Nurses’ Health Study II, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, family history of diabetes, menstrual irregularity, smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable.

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