Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home


Epidemiology and Surveillance

Back To Top


  • Murdoch ME, Asuzu MC, Hagan M, et al. Onchocerciasis: the clinical and epidemiological burden of skin disease in Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96:283–96.
  • Abiose A. Onchocercal eye disease and the impact of Mectizan treatment. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1998;92(Suppl 1):S11–22.
  • Lipner, E.M., M.A. Law, E. Barnett, J.S. Keystone, F. von Sonnenburg, L. Loutan, D.R. Prevots, A.D. Klion, T.B. Nutman, and N. for the GeoSentinel Surveillance. 2007. Filariasis in Travelers Presenting to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 1:e88.

Back To Top


  • Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ. Laboratory diagnosis of filariasis. Clin Lab Med 1991;11:977–1010.
  • Weil, G.J., C. Steel, F. Liftis, B.W. Li, G. Mearns, E. Lobos, and T.B. Nutman. 2000. A rapid-format antibody card test for diagnosis of onchocerciasis. J Infect Dis 182:1796-1799.
  • Udall DN. Recent updates on onchocerciasis: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Infect Dis 2007: 44: 53-60.
  • Stingl P. Onchocerciasis: developments in diagnosis, treatment and control. Int J Dermatol 2009; 48: 393-396.

Back To Top


  • Drugs for parasitic infections. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2007;5(Suppl):e1–15.
  • Hoerauf H, Mand S, Adjei O, et al. Depletion of Wolbachia endobacteria in Onchocerca volvulus by doxycycline and microfilaridermia after ivermectin treatment. Lancet. 2001;357:1415–6.
  • Basanez, M.G., S.D. Pion, E. Boakes, J.A. Filipe, T.S. Churcher, and M. Boussinesq. 2008. Effect of single-dose ivermectin on Onchocerca volvulus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 8:310-322.
  • Hoerauf, A., S. Specht, Y. Marfo-Debrekyei, M. Buttner, A.Y. Debrah, S. Mand, L. Batsa, N. Brattig, P. Konadu, C. Bandi, R. Fimmers, O. Adjei, and D.W. Buttner. 2009. Efficacy of 5-week doxycycline treatment on adult Onchocerca volvulus. Parasitol Res 104:437-447.

Back To Top

Prevention & Control

  • Gonzalez RJ, Cruz-Ortiz N, Rizzo N et al. Successful interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus, Guatemala. PloS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3(3): e404.
  • Lindblade KA, Arana B, Zea-Flores G, et al. Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Santa Rose focus of Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77(2):334-341.
    Thylefors, B., and M. Alleman. 2006. Towards the elimination of onchocerciasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100:733-746.
  • Katabarwa MN, Eyamba A, Chouaibou M, et al. Does onchocerciasis transmission take place in hypoendemic areas? A study from the North Region of Cameroon. Trop Med Int Health 2010.
  • Traore MA, Sarr MD, Badji A et al. Proof-of-Principle of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa : Final Results of a Study in Mali and Senegal. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2012; 6(9): e1825.
  • WHO. Onchocerciasis and its control. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on onchocerciasis control. WHO Technical Report Series 852, 1995.

Back To Top

Contact Us:
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    1600 Clifton Rd.
    Atlanta, GA 30333
  • 1-800-CDC-INFO
    TTY: 1-888-232-6348
    Hours of Operation
    8am-8pm EST/ Monday-Friday
    Closed Holidays
  • Contact CDC-INFO
  • Page last reviewed: May 21, 2013
  • Page last updated: May 21, 2013
  • Content source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria
  • Notice: Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS, CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site. The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC-INFO