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Image of a Phlebotomus papatasi sandfly which is responsible for the vector-borne parasitic disease leishmaniasis next to an image of Leishmania sp. promastigotes from culture. This is the stage of the parasite that occurs inside the mid-gut of the sand fly.

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is found in parts of the tropics, subtropics, and southern Europe. It is classified as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). Leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are spread by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis in people. The most common forms are cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and visceral leishmaniasis, which affects several internal organs (usually spleen, liver, and bone marrow).

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