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Treatment

Giardia trophozoites under scanning electron microscope.

Giardia trophozoites under scanning electron microscope. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC

Several drugs can be used to treat Giardia infection. Effective treatments include metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide[1]. Alternatives to these medications include paromomycin, quinacrine, and furazolidone[1,2]. Some of these drugs may not be routinely available in the United States.

Different factors may shape how effective a drug regimen will be, including medical history, nutritional status, and condition of the immune system[3-5]. Therefore, it is important to discuss treatment options with a health care provider.

References
  1. Drugs for Parasitic Infections: The Medical Letter; 2010.
  2. Escobedo AA, Cimerman S. Giardiasis: a pharmacotherapy review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007;8(12):1885-1902.
  3. Upcroft JA, Upcroft P. Drug resistance and Giardia. Parasitol Today. 1993;9(5):187-90.
  4. Muller J, Ley S, Felger I, Hemphill A, Muller N. Identification of differentially expressed genes in a Giardia lamblia WB C6 clone resistant to nitazoxanide and metronidazole. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(1):72-82.
  5. Solaymani-Mohammadi S, Genkinger JM, Loffredo CA, Singer SM. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of albendazole compared with metronidazole as treatments for infections with Giardia duodenalis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(5):e682.
 
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