NORA Manufacturing Sector Strategic Goals
927ZBBP - Nanoscale Reference Materials for Respiratory Disease PreventionStart Date: 10/1/2007
End Date: 9/30/2011
Principal Investigator (PI)Name: Aleks Stefaniak
Funded By: NIOSH
Primary Goal Addressed9.0
Secondary Goal Addressed
Attributed to Manufacturing
Nanoscale RMs are needed for evaluating exposure assessment tools and for performing high quality toxicology studies. Strong inter-agency interactions between NIOSH and NIST to better coordinate efforts to develop nanoscale RMs will result in products that optimally meet the needs of end-users. Current nanoscale RM efforts are focused on titanium dioxide. Parallel collaborative efforts to identify and preliminarily characterize EN with potential for development into RMs will expedite bringing new RMs to marker. Finally, classification schemes for hazard potential based on knowledge of material properties and/or toxicological behavior will guide future needs for RM development.
The purpose of this project is to foster development and qualification of nanoscale RMs for use in exposure assessment and toxicology studies. Our specific aims are to:
1) Strengthen interactions for nanoscale RM development and qualification between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the agency with statutory authority for research on worker health, and NIST, the federal agency with statutory authority to issue certified RMs.
2) Identify and evaluate preliminary characteristics of EN for potential development into RMs for exposure assessment and toxicology.
3) Develop classification schemes for EN hazard potential.
Strong inter-agency interactions to better coordinate efforts to develop nanoscale RMs will result in RMs that optimally meet the needs of end-users for industrial hygiene and toxicology applications. Parallel collaborative efforts to identify and preliminarily characterize EN with potential for development into RMs will expedite the RM qualification process and help validate selection of candidate RMs. Finally, because the sheer number of EN being introduced on an annual basis precludes our ability to evaluate the toxicity of each individual material, we aim to develop classification schemes for EN hazard potential to help guide future needs for development of nanoscale RMs.
The purpose of this project is to foster development of nanoscale RMs for use in exposure assessment and toxicology studies. Our specific aims are to:
1) Strengthen interactions for RM development and qualification between NIOSH and NIST.
2) Identify and evaluate preliminary characteristics of materials for potential development into RMs for exposure assessment and toxicology.
3) Develop classification schemes for EN exposure potential.
Due to the absence of scientifically valid nanoscale reference materials (RMs) the efficacy of existing (and new) measurement methods and techniques to accurately assess exposures to engineered nanomaterials (EN) in the workplace is unknown. Additionally, the absence of nanoscale RMs hinders characterization of EN for toxicological studies. The purpose of this project is to respond to the critical need for for nanoscale RMS for health protection studies.
A method used to measure a property of a nanoparticle may alter the characteristic being measured. For example, when brought under the electron beam of a transmission electron microscope, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles may enlarge via swelling (Latham et al., 2006) and iron nanoparticles may enlarge via beam-induced surface oxide layer thickening (Wang et al., 2007), thereby changing particle size. Regarding surface area, currently instrument performance is verified using micrometer scale powders that have high surface area due to their porosity, not nanoscale. Additionally, in a recent review, Hansen et al. (2007) determined that EN used in over 400 published nanotoxicology studies were often poorly described or not measured at all, resulting in great uncertainty among studies. Thus, a critical need exists for scientifically credible certified nanoscale RMs with assigned physical and/or chemical values for use in evaluating measurement tools and for benchmarking toxicology studies. The purpose of this project is to collaborate with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to develop and qualify nanoscale RMs necessary for enabling high quality health protection research which supports:
• MNF Strategic Goal 9 "Enhance the state of knowledge related to emerging risks to occupational safety and health in manufacturing."
• RDR cross-sector Intermediate Goal (09PPRDRIG5.2): characterize respiratory exposures and measures used to reduce exposures, including engineering controls and respiratory protection, in work settings where engineered nanomaterials are produced or used.
• RDR cross-sector Intermediate Goal (09PPRDRIG5.3): develop guidance for facilities that produce or use nanomaterials.
• EXA cross-sector Intermediate Goal 2.10 (09PPEXAIG2.10): Develop reference materials and values for use in exposure assessment studies.
• Activity/Output 2.10.1 (09PPEXAAOG2.10.1): Development of reference materials or values either through partnerships, literature reviews or direct synthesis of the reference materials.
• NAN cross-sector Intermediate Goal 5.4 (09PPNANIG5.4) Standard reference materials. Identify and qualify scientifically credible, nanoscale certified reference materials (RMs) with assigned physical and/or chemical values for use in evaluating measurement tools, instruments, and methods.
• Performance Measure 5.4. Within three years strengthen interactions with the National Institute of Standards and Technology to identify commercially available RMs and perform coherent research to identify, develop, and qualify nanoscale RMs and benchmark materials for evaluating measurement tools, instruments, and methods.
• NAN cross-sector Intermediate Goal 5.2 (09PPNANIG5.2) Develop new measurement methods. Expand the currently available instrumentation by developing and field testing methods that can accurately measure workplace airborne exposure concentrations of nanomaterials using metrics associated with toxicity (e.g., particle surface area, particle number).
• Performance Measure 5.2. Support at least three research projects over the next three years with the goal of creating a measurement method that can be correlated with the metrics associated with toxicity. Within five years develop a handheld fast-response nanoparticle monitor and software for spatial mapping of nanoparticles.
• NAN cross-sector Intermediate Goal 5.3 (09PPNANIG5.3) Validation of measurement methods. Develop testing and evaluation systems for comparison and validation of nanoparticle sampling instruments and methods.
• Performance Measure 5.3. Within three years publish procedures for validation of nanoparticle sampling instruments and methods.
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