NORA Manufacturing Sector Strategic Goals
9278011 - Risk Assessment Methods for Particles and FibersStart Date: 10/1/1999
End Date: 9/30/2011
Principal Investigator (PI)Name: Eileen Kuempel
Funded By: NIOSH
Primary Goal Addressed5.0
Secondary Goal AddressedNone
Attributed to Manufacturing50%
The purpose of this research is to develop a mechanistic and scientific basis for quantitative risk assessment of occupational exposure to respirable particulates and fibers. This is being performed through the use of both traditional risk assessment methods and the development of biologically-based modeling using existing data in humans and animals. The concordance between the animal- and human-based risk estimates is being evaluated. These findings will provide a framework for predicting disease risk in humans exposed to other types of respirable particles and fibers for which we have rodent bioassay data but insufficient epidemiological data. This project is expected to provide a scientific basis for future NIOSH recommendations on occupational exposures to particles and fibers.
The long-term objective of this research is to provide an improved scientific basis for quantitative risk assessment of occupational exposure to respirable particles and fibers. The specific aims are to: (1) develop biologically-based dosimetry models to describe the clearance and retention kinetics of respirable particles and fibers in the lungs of animals and humans; (2) describe the dose-response relationships in each species, for both nonmalignant and malignant diseases; (3) predict disease risks in humans with working lifetime exposures; and (4) evaluate concordance of risk estimates across species. The overall impact of this project will be to enhance our understanding of key factors in the development of particle- and fiber-related lung diseases, and to use this information in risk assessment and disease prevention strategies for occupational exposure to respirable particles and fibers.
The primary objective of this project is to increase the understanding of the risks of occupational exposures to particulates and fibers. A better understanding of what characteristics of particles and fibers increase their toxicity will lead to more informed recommendations for controlling particularly hazardous exposures. One example of how this would work is the increased understanding of how the size and surface area of particles change their potential health effects. These data and mechanistic information are used in risk assessment of particulates.
The objective of this project is to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing the risk of occupational lung diseases among workers exposed to various types of respirable particles or fibers. Workers in mining, construction, agriculture, manufacturing and transportation may benefit from this research. In this research, existing data in both humans and animals for a given particle or fiber type are evaluated using biological and statistical models. The kinetic and biological factors influencing dose and disease processes are evaluated, as well as the concordance of risk estimates across species. These findings provide a basis for assessing the human health risk of exposure to various types of particles or fibers for which exposure-response data are available in animals, but not in humans. This research will be useful to NIOSH in developing occupational health recommendations, and to workers through the implementation of these recommendations. This project supports the NORA research priority area of risk assessment methods development. This project contributes to the following sectors: