DCAS is responsible for conducting occupational radiation dose reconstructions for certain workers with cancer who file claims for compensation under The Act. In accordance with the methods published in 42 CFR 82, dose reconstructions will be performed for covered employees with cancer who are not members of a Special Exposure Cohort (SEC). As defined in The Act, SEC members with certain specified cancers do not require dose reconstructions to qualify for compensation.
The basic principle of dose reconstruction is to characterize the occupational radiation environment to which workers were exposed using available worker and/or workplace monitoring information. In cases where radiation exposures in the workplace environment can not be fully characterized based on available data, default values based on reasonable scientific assumptions are used as substitutes.
The results of worker dose reconstructions will be used by the Department
of Labor to determine the probability that a worker's
cancer was "at least as likely as not" due to his or her
occupational exposure to ionizing radiation during employment
at a covered facility. Criteria and
guidelines for making this determination are established
by The Act and HHS under 42
CFR 81 [ PDF 184 KB (20 pages)].
Dose Reconstruction Final Rule
Final Rule: Methods for Radiation Dose Reconstruction under The Act--42 CFR 82
PDF 129 KB (23 pages)
Public Comments on the Dose Reconstruction Final Rule
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Dose Reconstruction Production
In the early years of the NIOSH Dose Reconstruction Program it was not unusual for
many of the dose reconstructions to take several years to complete. DOL began
accepting claim applications on July 31, 2001, and sent the first batch of cases to
NIOSH on October 11, 2001, for dose reconstruction. However, the responsibilities
given to NIOSH for this compensation program were new to the agency at that time.
These cases were being sent to NIOSH before the necessary infrastructure, rules and
regulations, technical documents, and other processes and procedures required for dose
reconstruction were in place.
Through the development of more than 250 technical
documents (Site Profiles, Technical Basis Documents, and Technical Information Bulletins);
the development of efficient methods, tools, and techniques; and the standardization of
the methods, procedures, and reports used in dose reconstruction, NIOSH's dose
reconstruction program has matured over time. As a result, the average number of days
needed to process dose reconstructions for initial referrals (see Figure 1), the number
of cases received in 2001 from DOL that do not have an initial dose reconstruction (see
Figure 2), and the number of cases greater than two years old at NIOSH (see Figure 3) have all decreased.
The dose reconstruction processing timeline example (see Figure 4) shows steps involved in
the dose reconstruction process from the initial receipt of the case from DOL
to the submission of the Final Dose Reconstruction Report to the claimant(s) and DOL.
|Figure 1: Average days to process for cases initially referred by DOL in each year. Reported time is the time, in
days, between referral from DOL and the return of a final dose reconstruction report to DOL. There is no year for which all the returned
cases are done, so if reported at a different date, average processing times will likely be different.
|Figure 2: Number of cases referred to NIOSH for dose reconstruction in 2001 that remain at NIOSH on a particular date.
Cases are removed by sending the claimant a dose reconstruction or pulling the case from dose reconstruction. Cases returned for a revised
dose reconstruction are not included.
|Figure 3: Number of cases referred to NIOSH for dose reconstruction that remain at NIOSH for more than 2 years as of
a particular date. Cases are removed by sending the claimant a dose reconstruction or pulling the case from dose reconstruction. Cases
returned for a revised dose reconstruction are not included.
*Arrows and brackets are representative, not exact timing; points along the line are representative, not equal units of time.
**DOE is committed to providing a response on a records request within 60 days; response
may indicate only how they are proceeding in fulfilling the request for information, not
the transmittal of the actual records.
***Claimant(s) has 60 days to return OCAS-1 form(s); grace period of 14 days if not
returned within 60 days.
|Dose Reconstruction Processing Timeline Example (larger version)|
PDF 46 KB (1 page)
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Conflict or Bias Policy and Disclosure Statements
Disclosure and exclusion of conflicts and biases (COBs) ensures and maximizes the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of all scientific information disseminated by NIOSH pursuant to its responsibilities under EEOICPA. Achieving the highest level of scientific information quality is a core value for NIOSH, CDC, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
It is therefore crucial, for employees and corporate entities that perform any key program function or program support function for NIOSH pursuant to its responsibilities under EEOICPA, to fully disclose all past, current, or planned future employment-related relationships, financial relationships, familial relationships, or supervisory or subordinate work relationships that could pose a COB. If such a COB is found, the individual or corporate entity is to be excluded from performing any key program function.
To view more information on this topic, please visit our Conflict or Bias Policy and Disclosure Statements Web page.
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Changes to the Dose Reconstruction Target Organ Selection for Lymphoma
Federal Register Notice: Changes to the Dose Reconstruction Target Organ Selection for Lymphoma Under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of
(February 15, 2006)
PDF 133 KB (2 pages)
NIOSH has changed the selection of target organs used in dose reconstructions NIOSH produces under the EEOICPA for energy employees with lymphoma cancers. This change responds to an evaluation by NIOSH of current scientific data on lymphoma, which revealed that the site of the radiation injury can differ from the site of the tumor or cancer origin documented in the medical files of a lymphoma cancer patient. The new process for selecting dose reconstruction target organs for energy employees with lymphoma cancers includes selecting the target organ that would have received the highest radiation dose from among relevant, possibly irradiated organs, as determined through the dose reconstruction process, when the identity of the target organ is in question. This change may result in the Department of Labor calculating higher probability of causation determinations for select lymphoma cases among previously decided and current EEOICPA cancer claims.
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Dose Reconstruction Implementation Guidelines
The purpose of the guidelines is to provide basic information on the methods
used in reconstructing doses under EEOICPA. The intent of
these guidelines is to assist qualified health physicists
in determining annual organ dose from exposure to various
sources of radiation. Because not all possible exposure
scenarios can be foreseen, these guidelines do not provide
step by step instructions for how the dose reconstruction
should be performed.
- External Dose Reconstruction Implementation Guideline
PDF 423 KB (77 pages)
Document Number: OCAS-IG-001 Rev-03
About this Document: Provides guidance on the components, standards, and
methods of external radiation dose reconstruction for probability of causation calculations
in support of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA).
Used as a source to help provide specific guidance and methods which can be found in site
profiles and other site-specific documents.
Approved: November 21, 2007
- Internal Dose Guidelines
PDF 291 KB (50 pages)
Document Number: OCAS-IG-002 Rev-00
About this Document: Provides basic information on the methods employed in
reconstructing doses under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program
Act of 2000 (EEOICPA).
Approved: August 12, 2002
- Radiation Exposures Covered for Dose Reconstructions
under Part B of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness
Compensation Program Act
(Revised October 5, 2010)
PDF 112 KB (11 pages)
Document Number: DCAS-IG-003 Rev-00
About this Document: Provides guidance as to which sources of radiation are to
be included in dose reconstructions that are prepared by the National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH) under Part B of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation
Program Act (EEOICPA).
Approved: October 5, 2010
- Use of Classified Information
(January 7, 2011)
PDF 184 KB (10 pages)
Document Number: DCAS-IG-005 Rev-00
About this Document: Provides guidelines for the use of classified information relevant
to Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA).
Approved: January 7, 2011
- The Use of Data from
Other Facilities in the Completion of Dose Reconstructions
PDF 58 KB (11 pages)
Document Number: OCAS-IG-004 Rev-00
About this Document: Provides guidelines for the use of data from other
facilities in the completion of dose reconstructions.
Approved: August, 21, 2008
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Reports and Procedures for Completing Site Specific Dose Reconstructions
- Feasibility of Reconstructing Doses Received from Potential Exposures to Polonium at Savannah River Site
PDF 110 KB (11 pages)
Document Number: ORAUT-RPRT-0048 Rev-00
About this document: This report describes activities performed by the Savannah River Site (SRS)
related to the design of processes and facilities for separating 210Po from 210Bi with the objective of
determining the feasibility of reconstructing internal and external doses potentially received from
exposures to polonium. Incorporates NIOSH formal review comments.
Approved: January 24, 2011
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- Data Access and Interview Procedures
PDF 301 KB (14 pages)
Document Number: OCAS-PR-010 Rev-00
About this Document: Initial version of procedure describing the coordination and submission of data requests to the Department of Energy.
Approved: January 23, 2009
- Department of Energy Classification Review of Documents
PDF 38 KB (6 pages)
Document Number: OCAS-PR-011 Rev-00
About this Document: Initial version of procedure describing the Department
of Energy review of OCAS documents.
Approved: January 22, 2009
- Handling Controlled Unclassified Information
PDF 74 KB (17 pages)
Document Number: OCAS-PLCY-0001 Rev-00
About this Document: New document to establish guidelines for the handling of sensitive documents and information.
Approved: January 22, 2009
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Dose Reconstruction Program Video
NIOSH has developed a 15 minute video to educate energy workers, their
survivors, and authorized representatives about dose reconstruction and the overall dose
reconstruction program. It provides answers to the most frequently asked questions that
NIOSH receives from its claimants, as well as general information about the NIOSH claims process.
The video is intended to provide a basic understanding of this complex, scientific program to those who have a claim undergoing dose reconstruction. After watching the video, NIOSH hopes the audience has a better
understanding of dose reconstruction and the dose reconstruction process, and recognizes
that the NIOSH dose reconstruction program is grounded in sound, scientific methods
that give the benefit of the doubt to the worker whenever possible.
Obtaining copies of the video: You can view the Dose Reconstruction Program Video by clicking on the link below. Hard copies of the
video are also available by request. The video is available in the following formats: DVD (can be played on DVD players and some computers), CD-ROM (computer),
and VHS. If you are interested in receiving a copy of the video, please send your name, mailing address, number of copies, and video format(s) you would
like to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
You can also contact us toll-free at 1-877-222-7570 or directly at 513-533-6800 to request a copy of the video.
Please click the link below to start the video:
A transcript of the video is also available:
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Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Activities
DCAS' Quality Assurance (QA) program involves all of the planned and systematic activities incorporated within the DCAS organizational structure, procedures, processes, and resources needed to implement EEOICPA (The Act). DCAS has integrated Quality Control into all aspects of the NIOSH dose reconstruction program. Quality Control involves operational activities aimed at systems and processes developed to ensure the quality of our dose reconstructions.
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Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations
In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 for opportunity for public comment on
proposed data collection projects, the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects.
To request more information on the proposed projects or to obtain a
copy of the data collection plans and instruments, call the CDC Reports
Clearance Officer on (404) 639-7090.
Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of
information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of
the agency, including whether the information shall have practical
utility; (b) the accuracy of the agency's estimate of the burden of the
proposed collection of information; (c) ways to enhance the quality,
utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (d) ways
to minimize the burden of the collection of information on respondents,
including through the use of automated collection techniques or other
forms of information technology. Send comments to Anne O'Connor, CDC
Assistant Reports Clearance Officer, 1600 Clifton Road, MS-D24,
Atlanta, GA 30333. Written comments should be received within 60 days
of this notice.
Federal Register Notice
PDF 36 KB (2 pages)
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Updates to Scientific Elements of NIOSH Dose Reconstructions
As appropriate, NIOSH may update certain scientific elements of the dose reconstructions, as allowed under 42 CFR 82, to ensure NIOSH dose reconstructions are current with important scientific progress affecting dose reconstructions. If you wish to submit recommendations for such updates, you can e-mail recommendations as a MS Word or WordPerfect attachment to DCAS at email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org or mail recommendations addressed to:
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Division of Compensation Analysis and Support
1090 Tusculum Avenue
Cincinnati, Ohio 45226
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Dose Reconstruction Contractor Information
Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU)
On April 1, 2014, NIOSH awarded a contract to Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) [External link: http://www.orau.org/] to continue support of our activities under the Act. We originally awarded the contract to ORAU on September 11, 2002, and last renewed it on April 27, 2009. The 2014 contract is for one year with four, one-year options.
2014 ORAU Award/Contract
PDF 309 KB (53 pages)
ORAU will continue to provide services to NIOSH in the following areas:
- Database management;
- Data collection related to claims and petitions;
- Dose reconstruction research;
- Work History Phone Calls with Claimants
- Dose estimation and reporting; and
- Technical and program management support.
Please see ORAU's Dose Reconstruction Project for NIOSH website for more information on the ORAU team and services.
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Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA)
Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) is a licensed computer software program that is used by NIOSH to calculate individual organ doses which result from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The program is based on internationally accepted models published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and consists of several software modules created by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) of the United Kingdom. These modules can be used to evaluate the biological intake, excretion and dosimetry of a wide variety of radioactive isotopes.
- Internal Dose and Internal Dosimetry Models
Internal dose is the radiation dose received as a result of radioactive materials entering the body through either inhalation, ingestion or absorption. Once inside the body, the radioactive material accumulates in specific organs or tissues and delivers a radiation dose to those organs or tissues. The extent to which an organ or tissue accumulates and clears radioactive material is highly dependent on the specific radioactive element or elements encountered in the workplace. This differs from external dose which is the radiation exposure received as a result of standing or working near radioactive material.
The internal dose to various organs is calculated using
mathematical models of the biological behavior of radioactive
elements taken into the human body. These models, published
by the Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP),
describe the behavior of material as it enters, metabolizes,
and leaves the body. ICRP publication 301 contains the gastrointestinal tract model and publication
662 contains the lung model. These two models are connected
to a biokinetic model that varies with each element.
Most models of interest to the weapons program are contained
in publication 673 and 694. The models
for most other elements of interest are contained in
- Obtaining a copy of IMBA
IMBA contains licensed software modules. DCAS has obtained
a license for use of IMBA by DCAS, and its contractors.
Other individuals who wish to obtain a copy of IMBA must
contact the vendor. The vendor for the Americas and Pacific
Rim countries is ACJ
and Associates, Inc.
- Individual IMBA Requests and Questions
DCAS recognizes that many interested parties may not know
how IMBA works or understand the scientific basis for
these models. To help those who wish to understand more
about internal dose calculations, DCAS has established
a help desk to answer questions about IMBA. The toll free
number for the help desk is 1-800-322-0111. In addition,
specific requests for information or for IMBA calculations
can be made to NIOSH by sending an e-mail to our office
at email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org. In
your email request, please provide a return address for
where a response to the requested information or IMBA
calculation can be sent. All NIOSH responses to requests
for information or IMBA calculations will comply with
the software licensing agreements and copyright law.
NIOSH is currently accepting one IMBA calculation request per email. The calculations will be performed using the IMBA Expert DCAS edition to calculate the dose to an organ or tissue of interest. The email request must specify the exact calculation you would like performed. The minimum information needed to process a request is listed below:
|Minimum Information Required for IMBA Request
||Specific Examples of What Type of Information to Include in the Request
|1. Route of
||Inhalation, Ingestion, or Injection
|Note: If inhalation, include Solubility type
|Note: If ingestion, include the gastrointestinal absorption value
|2. Type of
||Acute (short duration) or Chronic (long duration)
||Uranium-234, Uranium-235, Plutonium-239, etc.
|4. Date of
||Start and stop
dates for chronic exposures or date of acute exposures
|5. Either a)
the intake quantity or b) the bioassay quantity
from which to calculate an intake.
||The bioassay quantity
should include the units (pCi/day, ug/L, etc.) and
the date the sample was taken.
|6. Organ of
||Lungs, Liver, Kidneys, etc.
|7. The date
range for which you want the annual doses to be
||From (year) to (year)
A sample email request for an IMBA calculation is provided below:
1 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). 1979. Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers, Part 1. ICRP Publication 30, Annals of the ICRP 2(3/4). Pergamon Press, Oxford.
2 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). 1994. Human Respiratory Model for Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 66, Annals of the ICRP 24(1-4). Elsevier Scientific Ltd., Oxford.
3 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). 1993. Age Dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intakes of Radionuclides, Part 2. ICRP Publication 67, Annals of the ICRP 22(2/3). Pergamon Press, Oxford.
4 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). 1995. Age Dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intakes of Radionuclides,
Part 3: Ingestion Dose Coefficients. ICRP Publication 69, Annals of the ICRP 25(1). Elsevier Scientific Ltd., Oxford.
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Dose Reconstruction Exposure Matrix for RECA Section 5 Claims
- Dose Reconstruction Exposure Matrix for Radiation
Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) Section 5 Claims
PDF 186 KB (24 pages)
Document Number: OCAS-RPT-002 Rev 0
About this Document: This is a modeled exposure estimate to complete the
dose reconstruction for RECA Section 5 claims forwarded by DOL to NIOSH for dose reconstruction.
The combination of available personnel monitoring information and workplace exposure
values contained in this exposure matrix are intended to reflect the best available estimate
of radiation exposure to RECA section 5 claimants for the purpose of determination of
causation. Because of the limitations in the available exposure information, it is not
possible to produce a unique estimate for each individual's radiation exposure scenario.
Rather, this report provides a series of matrices that can be used to bound exposures for
certain defined classes of workers. Where information was sparse or incomplete,
claimant favorable assumptions were used in the interpretation of these data and their
subsequent translation into the exposure matrix.
This report is intended to provide default exposure estimates when no information is
available. If claimant-specific information is available for a particular claim, that
information may be substituted for the default values in this matrix.
Approved: May 2009
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Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health Comments on Dose Reconstruction Documents
The Advisory Board conducts technical reviews of various DCAS guidance documents that relate to dose reconstruction. The Board's technical support contractor assists in the review process. The purpose of the reviews is to assess the scientific and technical quality of the methods used in dose reconstruction. They also help identify any deficiencies that could have a negative effect on the results or the dose reconstruction process. These reviews can be found on the Advisory Board: Reports from the Technical Support Contractor page of our Web site.
When the reviews are complete and all issues have been resolved, the Board prepares a brief summary of the resolutions. The summaries help the public understand the results of the technical reviews. These summaries can be found on the Advisory Board: Technical Review Summaries from the Technical Support Contractor page.
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- Access to Information for Performance of Radiation Dose Reconstructions
This report to Congress describes the information required
to conduct dose reconstructions, and it explains the
matters that can adversely affect the ability of NIOSH
to obtain the information in a timely, accurate, and
complete manner. With the cooperation of the Departments
of Labor and Energy, and claimants, and using data from
these and other sources, NIOSH continues to complete
dose reconstructions while further developing the capacity
of its dose reconstruction program.
Report to Congress: Access to Information for Performance of Radiation Dose Reconstructions
PDF 196 KB (18 pages)
Attachment 1: Dose Reconstruction Processing Timeline Goals (May 5, 2004)
PDF 51 KB (1 page)
Attachment 2: Dose Reconstruction Cases by Nuclear Weapons Production Facility
PDF 82 KB (5 pages)
- Evaluation of Target Organ for Lymphomas
Summary of NIOSH's Re-examination of Lymphoma Target Organ Selection
PDF 17 KB (2 pages)
Consultant Report--Dose Reconstruction Project from Dr. Mark Crowther, MD, MSc, FRCPC
PDF 15 KB (2 pages)
Target Organs for Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Cancers--Comments/Suggestions by K.F. Eckerman
PDF 14 KB (4 pages)
Selection for internal and external dosimetry target organs
for lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers
PDF 68 KB (15 pages)
Document Number: OCAS-TIB-0012 Rev-01
About this Document: Re-evaluates target organ selection for lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers.
Approved: February 10, 2006
- Federal Register Notice Published Announcing the Proposed Data
Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations
In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995
for opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects.
Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and
PDF 55 KB (2 pages)
- Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report
GAO Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims, Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives: Energy Employees Compensation--Many Claims Have Been Processed, but Action is Needed to Expedite Processing of Claims Requiring Radiation Exposure Estimates
PDF 492 KB (45 pages)
- Health Physics Journal: The NIOSH Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program (Vol. 95, No. 1, July 2008)
The July 2008 edition of the Health Physics: The Radiation Safety Journal is devoted to an in-depth examination of the science behind the NIOSH Radiation Dose Reconstruction Program. The Journal features 15 papers which highlight different aspects of the NIOSH dose reconstruction program.
A limited number of copies of the journal are available from NIOSH. To request a copy of the journal, contact DCAS by phone at 513-533-6800 or toll free at 1-877-222-7570. You can also request a copy of the journal via email at email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Memorandum of Understanding Between HHS and DOE
Memorandum of Understanding Between the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Energy
PDF 219 KB (14 pages)
- Memorandum of Understanding Between HHS and DOL
Memorandum of Understanding Between the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Labor
PDF 51 KB (9 pages)
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Historical Information and Archived Documents
Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) Dose Reconstruction Support Contract
- Battelle Dose Reconstruction Support Contract
On October 12, 2005, NIOSH awarded a one-year, task-order contract to Battelle. Under the contract, Battelle:
evaluated and analyzed radiological data and conditions at each of the 256 work sites listed in the contract;
developed technical basis documents (exposure models) for the work sites where adequate radiological and work-site information exists; and
completed the dose reconstructions for claims from work sites that had technical basis documents. They also identified the work sites that had inadequate information on radiological and work site conditions.
- Radiation Exposures Covered for Dose Reconstructions under Part B of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act
(Approved November 5, 2007)
PDF 39 KB (11 pages)
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