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Recreational Water

CDC's Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water – CDC's portal for information about swimming and recreational water illness prevention including brochures, and videos

Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak Response & Evaluation (CORE) [PDF - 224 KB] – guidelines for health departments, aquatics operators/managers, and child care program operators

Drop of News – newsletter highlighting state and local waterborne disease surveillance activities and informal CDC updates on waterborne disease and outbreak surveillance initiatives

EHS Feature News page: 2014 Recreational Water Illness and Injury (RWII) Prevention Week – feature page announcing RWII week and new environmental health materials related to healthy swimming

Environmental Health Systems Approach to Recreational Water Illness Prevention [PDF - 165 KB] or DOC [54 KB] – form in which to enter data for a better understanding of how the aquatic facility works

Environmental Public Health Online Courses (EPHOC) – a comprehensive online/on-demand package of courses for environmental public health practitioners including a module on swimming pools and recreational facilities

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: Investigation of Employee Symptoms at an Indoor Waterpark, Mason, OH [PDF - 1.3 MB] – results of the NIOSH investigation on the cause of symptoms reported at the Great Wolf Lodge indoor waterpark resort in Mason, Ohio

Healthy Housing Reference Manual – revision provides information on the impact of housing on health and safety and includes a chapter on swimming pools and spas

Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) – a model and guide under development for local and state agencies needing guidance to update or implement an aquatic health code in their jurisdictions

Model Pool Code Video – Check out a new short video on the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) as a tool to prevent outbreaks, drowning, and chemical poisoning.

Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis Associated with a Manmade Chlorinated Lake--Tarrant County, Texas, 2008. [PDF - 317 KB] – describes an assessment of cryptosporidiosis cases associated with a manmade lake in Texas

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia; EID – 2008 examination of public pools in Atlanta for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.

Recommendations for Preventing Pool Chemical–Associated Injuries – seven categories of CDC recommendations for preventing pool chemical-associated injuries

Recreational Water Illness and Injury (RWII) Prevention Week – information about National Recreational Water Illness and Injury Prevention Week

Journal of Environmental Health (JEH) Articles Related to the National Recreational Water Illness and Injury Prevention Week

Recent JEH articles to highlight RWII week for earlier years please visit our JEH publications page.

May 2014 [PDF - 452 KB] – discusses the proposed operational guidelines for the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) and progress to date

May 2013 [PDF - 520 KB] – discusses prevention of health events associated with pool chemicals and includes examples of pool chemical posters as well as information on the Model Aquatic Health Code and how it can be a beneficial tool in preventing accidents involved with pool chemicals

May 2012 [PDF - 385 KB] – discusses how the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) and International Swimming Pool and Spa Code (ISPSC) can complement each other in identifying the respective roles of building and health officials to maintain healthy aquatic venues

May 2011 [PDF - 180 KB] – discusses using education, engineering, and enforcement to combat recreational water illnesses

May 2010 [PDF - 718 KB] – discusses a new pool inspection data study and the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC)

Selected Articles from MMWR - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports

Announcements: Recreational Water Illness and Injury Prevention Week — May 19–25, 2014

Communitywide Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak --- Utah, 2007

Drowning — United States, 2005–2009

Microbes in Pool Filter Backwash as Evidence of the Need for Improved Swimmer Hygiene — Metro-Atlanta, Georgia, 2012

Pool Chemical--Associated Health Events in Public and Residential Settings --- United States, 1983--2007

Promotion of Healthy Swimming After a Statewide Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Recreational Water Venues — Utah, 2008–2009

Recreational Water–Associated Disease Outbreaks — United States, 2009–2010

Surveillance Data from Swimming Pool Inspections — Selected States and Counties, United States, May–September 2002

Surveillance Data from Public Spa Inspections --- United States, May--September 2002

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water Use — United States, 2007–2008

Violations Identified from Routine Swimming Pool Inspections --- Selected States and Counties, United States, 2008

Reports by Environmental Public Health Leadership Institute Graduates

We have many recreational water reports that were prepared by graduates of CDC’s Environmental Public Health Leadership Institute. These documents have not been revised or edited to conform to agency standards. The findings and conclusions in these reports are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For these reports and others search the EPHLI fellow projects page.

Links to information from outside CDC

Battling the Parasite in Your Local Pool (Wall Street Journal) – news article about new measures to battle the threat of Cryptosporidium

Beaches (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) – links to information about beaches, planning a trip to the beach, and about beach protection

Center for Watershed Protection – nonprofit 501(c)3 corporation that provides technical tools for protecting some of the nation’s most precious natural resources: our streams, lakes, and rivers

Nonhygienic Behavior, Knowledge, and Attitudes Among Interactive Splash Park Visitors [PDF - 417 KB] (Journal of Environmental Health) – study of nonhygienic behavior among children at Idaho splash parks and the influences of signage and hygiene attendants

Ocular and Respiratory Symptoms Among Lifeguards at a Hotel Indoor Waterpark Resort (Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine) – describes results of a study to determine the cause of eye and respiratory irritation symptoms among lifeguards at an indoor waterpark

Preventing Recreational Water Illness Outbreaks (National Swimming Pool Foundation) – article about a 2005 outbreak at a park linked to more than 3,000 illnesses and spread to 36 New York counties, 26 states, and two countries

Prevention and Control of Recreational Water Illnesses [PDF - 85 KB] (Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists) – position paper concerning the prevention and control of recreational water illnesses

Virginia Graeme Baker Pool & Spa Safety Act (Consumer Product Safety Commission [CPSC]) – June 2008 guidance on technical requirements of new swimming pool and spa drain cover performance

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