Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) often occurs with other conditions. Some of these conditions include anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, depression, difficult peer relationships, intellectual disabilities, and learning disabilities.
There are many different types of anxiety disorders with many different causes and symptoms. These include generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, separation anxiety, and different types of phobias. Separation anxiety is most common among young children. These children feel very worried when they are apart from their parents.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have trouble paying attention and controlling impulsive behaviors. They might act without thinking about what the result will be and, in some cases, they are also overly active. It is normal for children to have trouble focusing and behaving at one time or another. However, these behaviors continue beyond early childhood (0-5 years of age) among children with ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD can continue and can cause difficulty at school, at home, or with friends.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavior challenges. People with ASDs handle information in their brain differently than other people.
ASDs are "spectrum disorders." That means ASDs affect each person in different ways, and can range from very mild to severe. People with ASDs share some similar symptoms, such as problems with social interaction. But there are differences in when the symptoms start, how severe they are, and the exact nature of the symptoms.
Everyone feels worried, anxious, sad, or stressed from time to time. However, if these feelings do not go away and they interfere with daily life (for example, keeping a child home from school or other activities, or keeping an adult from working or attending social activities), a person might have depression. Having either a depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure for at least weeks might mean that someone has depression. Children and teens with depression might be irritable instead of sad. Depression can be treated with counseling and medication.
Difficult Peer Relationships
FXS can have many effects on a child's development. It can make childhood friendships, or peer relationships, very difficult. These relationships contribute to children's immediate happiness and may be very important to their long-term development.
Children with FXS might have difficulty in their peer relationships, for example, being rejected by peers or not having close friends. In some cases, children with peer problems may also be at higher risk for anxiety, behavioral and mood disorders, substance abuse and delinquency as teenagers.
People with intellectual disability have a significantly below-average score on a test of mental ability or intelligence and limitations in the ability to function in areas of daily life, such as communication, self-care, and getting along in social situations and school activities.
Children with intellectual disability can and do learn new skills, but they develop more slowly than children with average intelligence and adaptive skills. There are different degrees of intellectual disability, ranging from mild to severe. A person's level of intellectual disability can be defined by their intelligence quotient (IQ), or by the types and amount of support they need.
There are many kinds of learning disabilities (also called learning disorders). They can range from mild to severe and affect each person in different ways. Learning disabilities may affect a person’s ability to read, write, listen, talk, reason, do math, and pay attention.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
Division of Human Development and Disability
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