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Key Findings: Prevalence and characteristics of women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy
Many women in the United States are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including those who are trying to become pregnant, because they continue drinking alcohol even after they have stopped using contraception (birth control).

Key Findings: The effects of alcohol use during pregnancy and later developmental outcomes: An analysis of previous studies
The journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research has published a meta-analysis of multiple studies examining how drinking patterns of women during pregnancy can affect the development of their children.

Key Findings: Understanding and improving health messages about alcohol and pregnancy
The American Journal of Health Education published a study looking at women’s knowledge and beliefs about alcohol use and its risks during pregnancy, the role others play in influencing women’s behaviors, and women’s sources of health information to understand this issue.

Key Findings: Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age – United States, 2006-2010
The report, Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age – United States, 2006–2010, describes findings from the BRFSS examining any alcohol use and binge drinking among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age (18–44 years) in the U.S. from 2006 to 2010.

Key Findings: Low to Moderate Alcohol Use During Pregnancy and the Risk of Specific Neurodevelopmental Effects in Five-Year-Old Children
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published five papers from the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study which examined three specific neurodevelopmental outcomes in five-year-old children whose mothers reported drinking low to moderate amounts of alcohol during pregnancy.

Living with FASDs: Sasha’s Story
Read about Sasha's experiences with FASDs and learn about new materials on alcohol use during pregnancy.
(Published: September 8, 2014)

Alcohol: How much is too much?
(Published: April 21, 2014)

Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention
1 in 13 women reports drinking alcohol during pregnancy, which can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs).
(Published: September 9, 2013)

Alcohol and Pregnancy: Why Take the Risk?
How much do you know about alcohol use during pregnancy? Take our quiz to find out.
(Published: April 22, 2013)

Vital Signs: Binge Drinking
A serious, under-recognized problem among women and girls.
(Published: January 9, 2013)

FASD Awareness Day 2012
Read about Melissa’s experience with alcohol use during pregnancy.

New Report
Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age – United States, 2006-2010.
(Published: July 19, 2012)

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: One Woman’s Story
Read about one woman's experience with FASDs. Information about new tools and resources you can use is also provided.
(Published: April 23, 2012)

Recent Articles

* These scientific articles are from CDC authors and CDC grantees. It includes publications from 2005 to present.

Kid on stack of books

Prevalence and characteristics of women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in the United States: Estimates from the National Survey of Family Growth
Maternal and Child Health Journal 2014; DOI: 10.1007/s10995-014-1563-3
Cannon MJ, Guo J, Denny CH, Green PP, Miracle H, Sniezek JE, Floyd RL
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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Overview for Pediatric and Adolescent Care Providers
Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care 2014; 44:74-81
Senturias, Y
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Fetal Spectrum Disorders: An Overview of Ethical and Legal Issues for Healthcare Providers
Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care 2014; 44:102-104
Senturias, Y, Baldonado, M
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Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use
Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care 2014; 44:82-87
Zoorob, R, Snell, H, Kihlberg, C, Senturias, Y
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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Guidance for Recognition, Diagnosis, Differential Diagnosis and Referral
Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care 2014; 44:88-95
Senturias, Y, Asamoah, A
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Managing Children and Adolescents With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Medical Home
Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care 2014; 44:96-101
Senturias, Y, Burns, B
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Vital Signs: Communication Between Health Professionals and Their Patients About Alcohol Use—44 States and the District of Columbia, 2011
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; January 10, 2014; 63(01); 16-22. CDC
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A novel integration effort to reduce the risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy among women attending urban STD clinics
Public Health Reports; 2014; 129(1):56-62.
Hutton HE, Chander G, Green PP, Hutsell CA, Weingarten K, Peterson KL
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Higher functioning children with prenatal alcohol exposure: Is there a specific neurocognitive profile?
Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence; 2013; 19(6):561-578
Quattlebaum JL, O’Connor MJ
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Predictors of intelligence at the age of 5: Family, pregnancy and birth characteristics, postnatal influences, and postnatal growth
PLoS ONE 2013;8(11): e79200, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079200
Eriksen H-LF, Kesmodel US, Underbjerg M, Kilburn TR, Bertrand J, Mortensen EL
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A randomized trial comparing telephone versus in-person brief intervention to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2013;45(5):389-394; DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.06.006
Wilton G, Moberg DP, Van Stelle KR, Dold LL, Obmascher K, Goodrich J
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The association of mild, moderate, and binge prenatal alcohol exposure and child neuropsychological outcomes: A meta-analysis
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2013; DOI: 10.1111/acer.12214:1-13.
Flak AL, Su S, Bertrand J, Denny CH, Kesmodel US, Cogswell ME
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Factors associated with contraceptive use in a rural area in Western Cape Province
South African Medical Journal; 2013; 103(6):406-412
Peer N, Morojele N, London L
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Women’s knowledge, views, and experiences regarding alcohol use and pregnancy: Opportunities to improve health messages
American Journal of Health Education; 2013; 44(4):177-190
Elek E, Harris SL, Squire CM, Margolis M, Weber MK, Dang EP, Mitchell E
[Read Summary]

The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behavior in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 2013; doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12208
Skogerbø Å, Kesmodel US, Denny CH, Kjaersgaard MIS, Wimberley T, Landrø NI, Mortensen EL
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Prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies among nonpregnant American Indian women
American Journal of Health Promotion 2013;27(3)S66-S73
Hanson JD, Miller AL, Winberg A, Elliott A
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Does binge drinking during early pregnancy increase the risk of psychomotor deficits?
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research; 2013; doi: 10.1111/acer.12072
Kesmodel US, Bay B, Wimberley T, Eriksen H-LF, Mortensen EL
[Read Summary]

A randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing to prevent risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy in the Western Cape, South Africa
Addiction; 2012; 108:725-732
Rendall-Mkosi K, Morojele N, London L, Moodley S, Singh C, Girdler-Brown B
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Vital Signs: Binge Drinking Among Women and High School Girls – United States, 2011
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; January 11, 2013; 62(01); 9-13 CDC
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Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age – United States, 2006-2010
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; July 20, 2012; 61(28); 534-538 CDC
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The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child’s intelligence, attention, and executive function
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology; 2012; doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03393.x
Kesmodel US, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Skarpness B, Denny CH, Mortensen EL, and the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study Group (Bakketeig LS, Boyle CA, Cogswell ME, Falgreen Eriksen H-L, Grove J, Kilburn T, Landrø NI, Skogerbø Å, Underbjerg M, Wimberley T)
[Read Summary]

The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5- year-old children
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology; 2012; doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03394.x
Falgreen Eriksen H-L, Mortensen EL, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel US
[Read Summary]

The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology; 2012; doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03395.x
Kesmodel US, Falgreen Eriksen H-L, Underbjerg M, Kilburn TR, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen EL
[no article summary available]

The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology; 2012; doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03396.x
Underbjerg M, Kesmodel US, Landrø NI, Bakketeig L, Grove J, Wimberley T, Kilburn TR, Sværke C, Thorsen P, Mortensen EL
[Read Summary]

The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology; 2012; doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03397.x
Skogerbø Å, Kesmodel US, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø NI, Mortensen EL
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Racial and ethnic disparities in preconception risk factors and preconception care
Journal of Women’s Health; 2012; doi: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3259
Denny CH, Floyd RL, Green PP, Hayes DK
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Comparing the effectiveness of on-line versus in-person caregiver education and training for behavioral regulation in families of children with FASD
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction; 2012; doi: 10.1007/s11469-012-9376-3
Kable JA, Coles CD, Strickland D, Taddeo E
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Characteristics and behaviors of mothers who have a child with fetal alcohol syndrome
Neurotoxicology and Teratology; 2012; 34(1):90-95
Cannon MJ, Dominique Y, O’Leary LA, Sniezek JE, Floyd RL
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Translation of an evidence-based social skills intervention for children with prenatal alcohol exposure in a community mental health setting
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research; January 2012;36(1):141-152
O’Connor MJ, Laugeson EA, Mogil C, Lowe E, Welch-Torres K, Keil V, Paley B
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Low to moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of psychomotor deficits
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research; 2011; doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01657.x
Bay B, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Denny CH, Mortensen EL, Eriksen HL, Kesmodel US  
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Motivational interviewing + feedback intervention to reduce alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk among college binge drinkers: determinants and patterns of response
Journal of Behavioral Medicine; 2011; doi: 10.1007/s10865-010-9308-2 Ceperich SD & Ingersoll KS
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Evaluation of a service provider short course for prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2011;72:530-535
Mwansa-Kambafwile J, Rendall-Mkosi K, Jacobs R, Nel E, London L
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Medical expenditures of children in the United States with fetal alcohol syndrome
Neurotoxicology and Teratology; 2010; doi: 10.1016/j.ntt.2010.10.008 Amendah DD, Grosse SD, Bertrand J
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Alcohol consumption, nutrition, cardiovascular disease and iron status in South Africa: Implications for South Africa’s drinking guidelines
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 2010;23(3)(Supplement 1)
Morojele N
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Training needs of healthcare providers related to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention core competencies for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology; 2010; 17(3); e405-417 Brems C, Boschma-Wynn R, Dewane SL, Edwards AE, Robinson RV
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Neurodevelopmental Functioning in Children with FAS, pFAS, and ARND
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics; April 2010; 31(3):192-201
Chasnoff IJ, Wells AM, Telford E, Schmidt C, Messer G
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Knowledge, Opinions, and Practice Patterns of Obstetrician-Gynecologists Regarding their Patients' Use of Alcohol
Journal of Addiction Medicine; June 2010; 4(2):114-121
Anderson BL, Dang EP, Floyd RL, Sokol R, Mahoney J, Schulkin J
[Summary not available]

Concurrent Alcohol Use or Heavier Use of Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking Among Women of Childbearing Age with Accessible Health Care
Prevention Science; June 2010; 11:197-206
Tsai J, Floyd RL, Green PP, Denny CH, Coles CD, Sokol RJ
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A Dual-Focus Motivational Intervention to Reduce the Risk of Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice; May 2010; 17(2):203-212
Velasquez MM, Ingersoll KS, Sobell MB, Floyd RL, Sobell LC, von Sternberg K
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Impact of a Social Skills Intervention on the Hostile Attributions of Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research; February 2010; 34(2):231-241
Keil V, Paley B, Frankel F, O'Connor MJ
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Predictors of Risk of Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies Among Women in an Urban and a Rural Area of South Africa
Social Science & Media; February 2010; 70(4):534-542
Morojele NK, London L, Olorunju SA, Matjila MJ, Davids AS, Rendall-Mkosi KM
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Intervention for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Treatment Approaches and Case Management
Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews; 2009; 15(3):258-267 Paley B, O'Connor MJ
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"Family Matters:" Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and the Family
Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews; 2009;15:235-249
Olson HC, Oti R, Gelo J, Beck S
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Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews; September 2009; 15(3):193-199
Floyd RL, Weber MK, Denny CH, O'Connor MJ
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Interventions for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Overview of Findings for Five Innovative Research Projects
Research in Developmental Disabilities; Sept-Oct 2009; 30(5):986-1006
Bertrand J on behalf of the Interventions for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Research Consortium
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Alcohol Use Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age - United States, 1991-2005
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; May 22, 2009; 58 (19); 529-532 CDC
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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Competency-Based Curriculum Development Guide for Medical and Allied Health Education and Practice
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; April 2009
FASD Regional Training Centers Curriculum Development Team
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Integrating Case Topics in Medical School Curriculum to Enhance Multiple Skill Learning: Using Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders as an Exemplary Case
Academic Psychiatry; March-April 2009; 33(2):143-148
Paley B, O'Connor MJ, Baillie SJ, Guiton G, Stuber M
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Reducing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies: A Report of the National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect
Barry KL, Caetano R, Chang G, DeJoseph MC, Miller LA, O'Connor MJ, Olson HC, Floyd RL, Weber MK, DeStefano F, Dolina S, Leeks K, National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; March 2009.
[ English PDF | Accessible PDF ]

A Call to Action: Advancing Essential Services and Research on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - A Report of the National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect
Olson HC, Ohlemiller MM, O'Connor MJ, Brown CW, Morris CA, Damus K, National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect; March 2009.
[English PDF | Accessible PDF]

Alcohol Use and Serious Psychological Distress Among Women of Childbearing Age
Addictive Behaviors; February 2009; 34(2):146-153
Tsai J, Floyd RL, O'Connor MJ, Velasquez MM
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Additional Articles

Search a database of articles that have been published by CDC authors within the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from 1990 to present. Search with the keyword "fetal alcohol syndrome."

In addition, older articles by CDC authors and CDC grantees can be found on the Research page, in the related project section.

2008 and older articles are available here

 

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