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Household Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies — 14 States, 2006–2010

Please note: An erratum has been published for this article. To view the erratum, please click here.

Populations affected by disaster increase the demand on emergency response and public health systems and on acute care hospitals, often causing disruptions of services (1). Household preparedness measures, such as having a 3-day supply of food, water, and medication and a written household evacuation plan, can improve a population's ability to cope with service disruption, decreasing the number of persons who might otherwise overwhelm emergency services and health-care systems (2). To estimate current levels of self-reported household preparedness by state and sociodemographic characteristics, CDC analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data collected in 14 states during 2006–2010. The results of this analysis indicated that an estimated 94.8% of households had a working battery-operated flashlight, 89.7% had a 3-day supply of medications for everyone who required them, 82.9% had a 3-day supply of food, 77.7% had a working battery-operated radio, 53.6% had a 3-day supply of water, and 21.1% had a written evacuation plan. Non-English speaking and minority respondents, particularly Hispanics, were less likely to report household preparedness for an emergency or disaster, suggesting that more outreach activities should be directed toward these populations.

BRFSS is a state-based, random-digit–dialed telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years.* The survey collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive health practices, health-care access, and disease status. The General Preparedness module was included in BRFSS surveys conducted by 14 states during 2006–2010. Two states, Nebraska and Montana, collected data for multiple years. Comparison of data collected by these two states showed no significant increases or decreases in preparedness measures over time. Therefore, data for Nebraska and Montana were combined across years. Significance of differences between percentages was determined by chi-square test (p<0.05).

During 2006–2010, preparedness data were collected (with Council of American Survey and Research Organizations response rates indicated) from the following states: 2006, Connecticut (44.3%), Montana (54.8%), Nevada (50.1%), and Tennessee (56.7%); 2007, Delaware (43.2%), Louisiana (41.0%), Maryland (31.4%), Nebraska (65.4%), and New Hampshire (37.7%); 2008, Georgia (55.1%), Montana (48.3%), Nebraska (65.5%), New York (40.0%), and Pennsylvania (45.6%); 2009, Mississippi (49.3%); and 2010, Montana (65.4%) and North Carolina (41.1%).

Household disaster preparedness measures, as defined by the BRFSS questionnaire, included the following items: having 3-day supplies of food, prescription medications, and water, a written evacuation plan, a working battery-powered radio, and a working battery-powered flashlight. Respondents were asked the following six questions: 1) "Does your household have a 3-day supply of nonperishable food for everyone who lives there? By nonperishable we mean food that does not require refrigeration or cooking." 2) "Does your household have a 3-day supply of water for everyone who lives there? A 3-day supply of water is 1 gallon of water per person per day." 3) "Does your household have a 3-day supply of prescription medications for each person in your household who takes prescription medications?" 4) "Does your household have a working battery-operated radio and working batteries for use if the electricity is out?" 5) "Does your household have a working flashlight and working batteries for use if the electricity is out?" 6) "Does your household have a written evacuation plan for how you will leave your home in case of a large-scale disaster or emergency that requires evacuation?"

Overall, an estimated 94.8% of households had a working battery-operated flashlight, 89.7% had a 3-day supply of medications for everyone who required them, 82.9% had a 3-day supply of food, 77.7% had a working battery-operated radio, 53.6% had a 3-day supply of water, and 21.1% had a written evacuation plan (Table 1). With the exception of having a 3-day supply of medication and a written evacuation plan, which were not significantly different by sex, men were significantly more likely than women to report their households were prepared. Significant differences ranged from 1.6 percentage points (95.6% compared with 94.0%) for having a working, battery-powered flashlight to 6.9 percentage points (57.2% compared with 50.3%) for having a 3-day supply of water (Table 1). By race/ethnicity, Hispanics were significantly less likely than all other race/ethnicities to have a 3-day supply of food (75.0%), a 3-day supply of medication (69.0%), and a working battery-operated radio (67.1%), and flashlight (84.4%). In general, as the age of respondents increased, reported household preparedness increased. With the exceptions of having a 3-day supply of water and a written evacuation plan, persons with a high school diploma were more likely to indicate preparedness than those with less than a high school diploma. With the exception of having a written evacuation plan, which was most prevalent among respondents who were unable to work, in general, retired respondents were most likely to indicate that their household was prepared.

Respondents who requested that the survey be conducted in Spanish (68.2%) were less likely to report their households had a 3-day supply of food than those administered the survey in English (83.2%) (Figure). A similar pattern was observed for having a 3-day supply of medication (Spanish, 51.7%; English, 90.6%), a working battery-operated radio (Spanish, 56.5%; English, 78.1%), and a working battery-operated flashlight (Spanish, 74.7%; English, 95.2%). However, respondents who requested the survey be conducted in Spanish were significantly more likely to report their households had a 3-day supply of water (Spanish, 64.5%; English, 53.6%) and were as likely as those interviewed in English to report that the household had a written evacuation plan (Spanish, 25.6%; English, 20.6%; p=0.066).

By state, Montana respondents were most likely (88.1%) and Nevada respondents were least likely (78.5%) to report their household had a 3-day supply of food (Table 2). Pennsylvania respondents were most likely (93.7%) and Nevada respondents were least likely (80.7%) to report a 3-day supply of medication. Louisiana respondents were most likely (67.1%) and Nebraska respondents were least likely (45.5%) to report a 3-day supply of water. Louisiana respondents were most likely (54.0%) and Pennsylvania respondents were least likely (15.0%) to have a written evacuation plan. Louisiana respondents were most likely (85.2%) and Nevada respondents were least likely (72.3%) to report a working battery-powered radio. New Hampshire respondents were most likely (97.2%) and New York respondents were least likely (93.4%) to report a working battery-powered flashlight.

Reported by

Summer D. DeBastiani MPH, Tara W Strine, PhD, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC. Corresponding contributor: Summer D. DeBastiani, sdebastiani@cdc.gov, 404-639-3101.

Editorial Note

Similar to previous studies, the findings in this report generally indicate increased levels of disaster and emergency preparedness among men, English-speaking persons, and adults with more education (3,4). Also similar to previous research, this analysis indicates limited evacuation planning among households (3,4). With the notable exception of Louisiana, where in 2007, 2 years after devastating Hurricane Katrina, 54.0% of respondents said they had a written evacuation plan, no state reported a prevalence as high as 35%. Therefore, increased efforts encouraging the adoption of a written household evacuation plan are needed.

Beginning in 2003, the federal government launched two preparedness campaigns for the purpose of increasing household preparedness: Ready.gov and the Citizen Corps (5,6). Both campaigns encourage the general population to prepare for disasters by being informed, assembling an emergency kit, and having a plan (Box). Ready.gov is an Internet-based disaster preparedness initiative, and the Citizen Corps encourages government and community leaders to involve the general population in all-hazards emergency preparedness activities (5,6). The primary method to access preparedness materials and information through these organizations is via predominantly English language websites, creating a possible barrier for non-English speaking adults, persons of low socioeconomic status, and those without Internet access. An increased effort to make household preparedness materials and information more accessible, particularly by those with resource and language barriers, is needed.

The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, during 2006–2010, BRFSS sampled only households with a landline telephone, thus excluding homes with only cellular telephones. Second, responses were dependent on the participant's understanding of preparedness measures taken in the household; for example, some respondents might not have known that the household had a 3-day supply of food, water, and medications. In addition, respondents were not required to present any evidence that a preparedness measure (e.g., 3-day supply of water or a working flashlight) had been met. Third, the response rates were low; only approximately one of every two persons contacted agreed to participate in the survey. Fourth, several of the questions failed to account for all types of preparedness technology (e.g., hand-cranked flashlights). Finally, the General Preparedness module was only implemented in 14 states during 2006–2010, with only a few states using the module in any given year; therefore, the findings are not generalizable to the U.S. population.

Since the 2001 terrorist attacks, the federal government has increased its emphasis on emergency preparedness, including the response and recovery capabilities of emergency management agencies, hospitals, and public health systems (7). CDC uses preparedness metrics to assess systems, with the findings disseminated to states and used to inform Healthy People 2020 objectives. Outcomes associated with individual household preparedness activities, however, are not similarly assessed or shared (3,8). To help improve household disaster preparedness in the general population and to inform national and state preparedness planning and policy, systematically measured, generalizable state-based household preparedness data are needed (9).

References

  1. Hick JL, Hanfling D, Burstein JL, et al. Health care facility and community strategies for patient care surge capacity. Ann Emerg Med 2004;44:253–61.
  2. Paton D, Johnston DM. Disaster resilience: an integrated approach. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas; 2006:105–6.
  3. Ablah E, Konda K, Kelley CL. Factors predicting individual emergency preparedness: a multi-state analysis of the 2006 BRFSS data. Biosecur Bioterror 2009;7:317–30.
  4. Murphy ST, Cody M, Frank LB, Glik D, Ang A. Predictors of emergency preparedness and compliance. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2009;7:S1–8.
  5. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Ready. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency; 2012. Available at http://www.ready.gov. Accessed September 7, 2012.
  6. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Citizen Corps. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency; 2012. Available at http://citizencorps.gov. Accessed September 7, 2012.
  7. CDC. Public health preparedness capabilities: national standards for state and local planning. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2011. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/capabilities. Accessed September 7, 2012.
  8. CDC. Public Health Emergency Preparedness Program: budget period 1. Performance measures specifications and implementation guidance. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2012. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/phpr/documents/phep+bp1+pm+specifications+and+implementation+guidance_v1_1.pdf. Accessed September 7, 2012.

* Additional information available at http://www.cdc.gov/brfss.


What is already known on this topic?

Household preparedness measures, such as having a 3-day supply of food, water, and medications and a written household evacuation plan, can improve a population's ability to cope with disasters and emergencies, decreasing the number of persons who might otherwise strain emergency and health-care services.

What is added by this report?

Results from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys of household preparedness in 14 states during 2006–2010 indicated that an estimated 94.8% of households had a working battery-operated flashlight, 89.7% had a 3-day supply of medications for everyone who required them, 82.9% had a 3-day supply of food, 77.7% had a working battery-operated radio, 53.6% had a 3-day supply of water, and only 21.1% of U.S. residents had a written evacuation plan.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Greater effort is needed to stress the importance of disaster and emergency preparedness, especially the need for a written evacuation plan. Public health and emergency services agencies should increase the accessibility of household preparedness materials and information to the Hispanic population and persons with resource and language barriers.


BOX. Recommendations to prepare a household for emergency or disaster — Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2012

Be informed

Knowing about the local emergency plans for shelter and evacuation and local emergency contacts will help you develop your household plan and also will aid you during a crisis.

Make a kit

A disaster supplies kit is simply a collection of basic items your household might need in the event of an emergency.

  • Water, 1 gallon of water per person per day for at least 3 days, for drinking and sanitation.
  • Food, at least a 3-day supply of nonperishable food.
  • At least a 3-day supply of medications for each person who takes prescription medications.
  • Battery-powered or hand crank radio and a National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration weather radio with tone alert and extra batteries for both.
  • Flashlight and extra batteries.

Have a plan

Emergency planning should address the care of pets, aiding family members with access and functional needs and safely shutting off utilities. Practice your plan at least twice a year and update it according to any issues that arise.

Source: Federal Emergency Management Agency. Ready. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency; 2012. Available at http://www.ready.gov.


FIGURE. Percentage of participants reporting household disaster or emergency preparedness, by preparedness measure and language used in the interview — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 14 states, 2006–2010

The figure shows the percentage of participants reporting household disaster or emergency preparedness, by preparedness measure and language (English or Spanish) used in the interview, in 14 states during 2006-2010. Respondents surveyed in Spanish were less likely (68.2%) to report their households had a 3-day supply of food than those administered the survey in English (83.2%). A similar pattern was observed for having a 3-day supply of medication and working battery-operated radio and flashlight. However, respondents surveyed in Spanish were significantly more likely to report a 3-day supply of water (Spanish, 64.5%; English, 53.6%), and there was no significant difference, by language, in the proportion reporting that the household had a written evacuation plan.

* 95% confidence interval.

Alternate Text: The figure above shows the percentage of participants reporting household disaster or emergency preparedness, by preparedness measure and language (English or Spanish) used in the interview, in 14 states during 2006-2010. Respondents surveyed in Spanish were less likely (68.2%) to report their households had a 3-day supply of food than those administered the survey in English (83.2%). A similar pattern was observed for having a 3-day supply of medication and working battery-operated radio and flashlight. However, respondents surveyed in Spanish were significantly more likely to report a 3-day supply of water (Spanish, 64.5%; English, 53.6%), and there was no significant difference, by language, in the proportion reporting that the household had a written evacuation plan.


TABLE 1. Percentage of participants reporting household disaster or emergency preparedness, by preparedness measures and sociodemographic characteristics — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 14 states, 2006–2010

Characteristic

Have a 3-day supply of food

Have a 3-day supply of medication

Have a 3-day supply of water

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

Overall

83,965

49,939,735

82.9

(82.4–83.5)

80,351

47,083,817

89.7

(89.2–90.1)

55,323

32,222,914

53.6

(52.9–54.3)

Sex

Men

31,975

24,297,666

84.2

(83.3–85.0)

29,855

22,484,121

90.2

(89.4–90.9)

22,374

16,514,103

57.2

(56.1–58.3)

Women

51,990

25,642,069

81.8

(81.1–82.5)

50,496

24,599,696

89.2

(88.6–89.8)

32,949

15,708,811

50.3

(49.4–51.1)

Race/Ethnicity*

White

79,764

38,059,253

84.8

(84.2–85.4)

67,007

36,730,925

92.8

(92.4–93.2)

44,179

23,349,524

52.1

(51.3–52.9)

Black

7,889

6,322,382

77.9

(76.1–79.5)

7,423

5,726,674

82.6

(81.0–84.2)

6,078

4,733,017

58.2

(56.3–60.2)

Hispanic

2,262

2,744,511

75.0

(71.6–78.1)

1,849

2,060,575

69.0

(65.1–72.7)

1,715

2,025,186

55.0

(51.4–58.7)

Other race/Multirace

3,753

2,365,541

78.7

(75.5–81.6)

3,378

2,159,139

84.9

(81.7–87.6)

2,789

1,780,008

60.4

(57.0–63.7)

Age group (yrs)

18–24

2,576

4,683,190

79.7

(77.1–82.1)

2,102

3,918,690

79.8

(76.9–82.4)

1,689

3,088,207

53.1

(50.0–56.3)

25–34

7,241

8,345,572

77.8

(76.1–79.5)

5,871

7,000,146

83.7

(82.0–85.3)

4,294

5,202,686

48.4

(46.5–50.4)

35–44

12,053

10,274,805

80.8

(79.5–82.1)

10,610

9,310,066

87.7

(86.5–88.9)

7,251

6,166,027

48.6

(47.0–50.2)

45–54

16,863

9,621,520

83.5

(82.5–84.5)

15,961

9,248,143

90.5

(89.6–91.3)

10,821

6,093,993

52.9

(51.6–54.3)

≥55

44,575

16,673,720

87.9

(87.4–88.5)

45,192

17,268,658

95.8

(95.4–96.1)

30,764

11,402,504

60.2

(59.4–61.1)

Education

Less than a high school diploma

7,910

4,316,121

80.0

(78.0–81.8)

7,632

3,831,918

79.3

(77.0–81.3)

6,013

3,199,648

59.7

(57.4–61.9)

High school diploma

26,255

15,048,742

83.8

(82.8–84.7)

25,123

13,965,053

88.3

(87.3–89.1)

17,666

10,206,329

57.0

(55.7–58.2)

More than a high school diploma

49,670

30,516,047

83.0

(82.3–83.7)

47,472

29,231,941

92.0

(91.4–92.5)

31,535

18,764,811

51.0

(50.2–51.9)

Employment status

Currently employed

43,599

30,335,878

82.4

(81.7–83.2)

39,696

27,434,623

88.7

(88.0–89.4)

27,586

18,994,551

51.7

(50.7–52.6)

Unemployed

3,409

2,686,613

78.5

(75.4–81.2)

3,135

2,500,045

84.9

(82.1–87.3)

2,346

1,834,715

53.5

(50.2–56.8)

Retired

23,643

8,673,886

89.2

(88.4–89.9)

24,209

9,107,235

96.5

(96.1–96.9)

16,496

6,092,790

62.9

(61.7–64.0)

Unable to work

5,568

2,619,215

78.4

(76.2–80.5)

6,106

2,895,877

89.2

(87.4–90.7)

4,028

1,852,808

55.7

(53.2–58.3)

Housewife/Student

7,551

5,528,482

81.5

(79.7–83.1)

7,020

5,051,584

86.5

(84.8–88.1)

4,720

3,376,956

49.9

(47.7–52.1)

Marital status

Currently married

48,066

30,831,168

84.3

(83.7–85.0)

46,635

29,645,628

91.7

(91.1–92.2)

30,395

19,343,368

52.9

(52.1–53.8)

Previously married

25,166

8,731,801

83.0

(82.0–84.0)

24,297

8,419,916

90.1

(89.2–90.9)

17,555

5,930,648

56.6

(55.3–57.8)

Never married§

10,469

10,227,723

78.9

(77.4–80.4)

9,193

8,875,935

83.3

(81.7–84.7)

7,178

6,825,329

52.9

(51.0–54.7)

Interview language

English

82,140

47,896,583

83.2

(82.7–83.8)

78,730

45,313,761

90.6

(90.1–91.1)

54,047

30,767,692

53.6

(52.9–54.3)

Spanish

552

666,986

68.2

(62.1–73.7)

348

432,069

51.7

(44.6–58.6)

514

627,984

64.5

(58.2–70.2)

Children in household

Yes

23,462

20,454,775

80.9

(80.0–81.9)

20,767

18,129,679

86.7

(85.7–87.6)

13,764

12,200,949

48.4

(47.2–49.6)

No

60,392

29,425,652

84.4

(83.8–85.1)

59,498

28,905,485

91.7

(91.1–92.2)

41,481

19,981,656

57.4

(56.6–58.2)


TABLE 1. (Continued) Percentage of participants reporting household disaster or emergency preparedness, by preparedness measures and sociodemographic characteristics — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 14 states, 2006–2010

Characteristic

Have a written evacuation plan

Have a working battery-operated radio

Have a working battery-operated flashlight

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

Overall

22,522

12,661,492

21.1

(20.6–21.7)

74,331

46,538,951

77.7

(77.2–78.3)

93,831

57,256,195

94.8

(94.4–95.1)

Sex

Men

8,385

6,051,319

21.0

(20.2–21.9)

28,986

22,906,709

79.6

(78.6–80.5)

35,529

27,730,509

95.6

(95.1–96.1)

Women

14,137

6,610,173

21.3

(20.6–21.9)

45,345

23,632,242

76.1

(75.3–76.8)

58,302

29,525,687

94.0

(93.6–94.4)

Race/Ethnicity*

White

17,498

8,761,404

19.6

(19.0–20.2)

61,565

35,783,853

80.4

(79.8–81.0)

77,536

43,646,594

97.0

(96.7–97.2)

Black

2,620

2,103,974

26.2

(24.7–27.9)

6,931

5,878,861

72.4

(70.5–74.1)

8,703

7,232,129

89.1

(87.8–90.2)

Hispanic

907

980,547

26.8

(23.9–29.9)

2,005

2,465,690

67.1

(63.5–70.4)

2,559

3,116,057

84.4

(81.5–86.9)

Other race/Multirace

1,272

706,156

23.9

(21.3–26.7)

3,195

2,021,506

67.3

(63.7–70.8)

4,206

2,747,172

90.8

(88.4–92.8)

Age group (yrs)

18–24

694

1,038,145

17.9

(15.9–20.1)

2,389

4,401,518

75.6

(72.8–78.2)

2,940

5,408,379

92.0

(90.2–93.5)

25–34

1,896

1,959,055

18.3

(17.0–19.8)

6,667

7,937,548

74.2

(72.4–75.9)

8,450

9,962,729

92.7

(91.6–93.6)

35–44

3,235

2,660,066

21.0

(19.7–22.3)

11,455

9,925,954

78.4

(77.0–79.8)

13,920

12,025,987

94.3

(93.5–95.1)

45–54

4,453

2,471,297

21.5

(20.5–22.6)

15,444

9,077,234

79.5

(78.4–80.5)

19,108

11,047,242

95.8

(95.2–96.3)

≥55

12,036

4,419,004

23.5

(22.8–24.2)

37,769

14,866,044

78.8

(78.1–79.5)

48,663

18,405,331

96.5

(96.1–96.8)

Education

Less than a high school diploma

2,502

1,408,864

26.7

(24.8–28.6)

6,414

3,651,230

67.8

(65.6–70.0)

8,677

4,761,831

88.3

(86.6–89.8)

High school diploma

7,757

4,415,355

24.8

(23.8–25.8)

23,338

14,060,524

78.6

(77.5–79.6)

29,233

17,045,577

94.5

(94.0–95.1)

More than a high school diploma

12,219

6,813,722

18.6

(17.9–19.2)

44,467

28,769,462

78.8

(78.1–79.5)

55,771

35,376,690

95.8

(95.4–96.2)

Employment status

Currently employed

10,867

7,144,636

19.5

(18.8–20.2)

39,991

28,909,540

79.0

(78.2–79.7)

49,522

35,152,226

95.3

(94.9–95.7)

Unemployed

958

742,373

22.0

(19.5–24.8)

3,025

2,452,521

72.5

(69.3–75.4)

3,865

3,146,645

91.9

(89.9–93.5)

Retired

6,688

2,457,513

25.6

(24.6–26.6)

19,787

7,642,923

79.0

(78.1–79.9)

25,535

9,457,148

96.6

(96.2–97.0)

Unable to work

1,891

904,303

27.5

(25.4–29.8)

4,640

2,280,968

68.7

(66.2–71.1)

6,169

2,952,544

88.4

(86.6–90.0)

Housewife/ Student

2,048

1,372,799

20.2

(18.7–21.9)

6,721

5,162,344

76.5

(74.5–78.4)

8,518

6,430,010

94.1

(93.0–95.0)

Marital status

Currently married

12,082

7,572,189

20.7

(20.1–21.4)

44,388

29,358,964

80.8

(80.1–81.5)

53,879

35,453,676

96.7

(96.3–97.0)

Previously married

7,499

2,614,001

25.1

(24.1–26.2)

20,383

7,540,051

71.9

(70.8–73.0)

27,707

9,762,064

92.4

(91.7–93.1)

Never married§

2,855

2,434,013

19.0

(17.7–20.3)

9,334

9,492,166

73.8

(72.1–75.4)

11,941

11,863,771

91.3

(90.3–92.3)

Interview language

English

21,689

11,819,518

20.6

(20.1–21.2)

72,706

44,672,616

78.1

(77.5–78.7)

91,753

54,940,267

95.2

(94.8–95.5)

Spanish

251

249,308

25.6

(20.7–31.2)

451

555,298

56.5

(50.0–62.7)

615

735,069

74.7

(68.7–79.9)

Children in household

Yes

6,540

5,239,598

20.8

(20.0–21.8)

22,172

19,678,184

78.2

(77.2–79.2)

26,937

23,878,858

94.3

(93.7–94.8)

No

15,934

7,392,433

21.3

(20.7–21.9)

52,054

26,797,544

77.4

(76.7–78.1)

66,771

33,299,418

95.1

(94.7–95.5)

Abbreviation: CI = confidence interval.

* Persons identified as Hispanic might be of any race. Persons identified as white, black, or other race/multirace are all non-Hispanic. The four racial/ethnic categories are mutually exclusive.

Includes divorced, widowed, and separated persons.

§ Includes never married persons and members of unmarried couples.


TABLE 2. Percentage of participants reporting household disaster or emergency preparedness, by preparedness measures and state — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 14 states, 2006–2010

State

Year

Have a 3-day supply of food

Have a 3-day supply of medication

Have a 3-day supply of water

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

Overall

83,965

49,939,735

82.9

(82.483.5)

80,351

47,083,817

89.7

(89.290.1)

55,323

32,222,914

53.6

(52.954.3)

Connecticut

2006

3,483

1,953,333

80.7

(78.1–82.3)

3,430

1,897,278

88.5

(87.0–89.8)

2,289

1,250,486

51.6

(49.7–53.6)

Delaware

2007

3,402

559,508

85.6

(83.9–87.1)

3,232

519,317

91.5

(90.0–92.8)

2,374

393,933

60.2

(58.0–62.4)

Georgia

2008

4,686

5,704,548

83.8

(82.1–85.3)

4,552

5,326,005

91.0

(89.7–92.2)

2,952

3,548,334

52.2

(50.2–54.2)

Louisiana

2007

5,263

2,503,903

84.7

(83.4–86.0)

4,840

2,225,833

85.2

(83.8–86.4)

4,180

1,986,970

67.1

(65.5–68.8)

Maryland

2007

3,377

3,081,163

79.7

(77.7–81.5)

3,393

2,971,525

86.3

(84.2–88.1)

2,309

2,141,650

55.1

(52.9–57.3)

Mississippi

2009

8,780

1,665,142

83.3

(82.2–84.4)

8,829

1,602,641

90.8

(89.7–91.7)

6,051

1,129,593

56.6

(55.1–58.0)

Montana

2006

2008

2010

16,737

1,827,338

88.1

(87.4–88.8)

15,185

1,620,819

91.1

(90.4–91.9)

10,896

1,133,622

54.7

(53.6–55.8)

Nebraska

2007

2008

8,736

2,082,276

83.8

(82.1–85.4)

8,398

1,957,109

91.0

(89.5–92.3)

4,745

1,130,401

45.5*

(43.5–47.6)

Nevada

2006

2,772

1,300,038

78.5*

(76.1–80.7)

2,559

1,170,845

80.7*

(78.1–83.1)

2,102

1,041,549

63.0

(60.4–65.5)

New Hampshire

2007

4,615

776,298

81.7

(80.3–82.9)

4,540

752,438

90.8

(89.6–91.9)

3,122

5,167,704

54.2

(52.6–55.9)

New York

2008

3,032

11,086,539

79.8

(78.0–81.4)

3,040

10,742,654

89.6

(87.9–91.0)

1,953

6,979,891

50.4

(48.4–52.5)

North Carolina

2010

10,227

5,869,875

84.7

(84.5–86.8)

9,803

5,367,481

91.4

(90.3–92.4)

6,707

3,866,292

56.7

(55.2–58.1)

Pennsylvania

2008

5,435

7,995,514

86.1

(84.7–87.5)

5,246

7,614,674

93.7

(92.5–94.8)

3,579

4,947,353

53.4

(51.5–55.4)

Tennessee

2006

3,420

3,534,261

82.0

(80.2–83.6)

3,304

3,315,199

84.4

(82.5–86.2)

2,064

2,156,136

50.0

(47.7–52.3)


TABLE 2. (Continued) Percentage of participants reporting household disaster or emergency preparedness, by preparedness measures and state — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 14 states, 2006–2010

State

Year

Have a written evacuation plan

Have a working battery-operated radio

Have a working battery-operated flashlight

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

No. in sample

Weighted no.

%

(95% CI)

Overall

22,522

12,661,492

21.1

(20.621.7)

74,331

46,538,951

77.7

(77.278.3)

93,831

57,256,195

94.8

(94.495.1)

Connecticut

2006

967

544,187

22.4

(20.8–24.1)

3,338

1,915,855

79.2

(77.6–80.8)

4,121

2,328,965

95.5

(94.6–96.2)

Delaware

2007

947

148,878

22.8

(20.8–25.0)

3,062

514,735

79.0

(77.1–80.7)

3,771

627,163

95.7

(94.7–96.6)

Georgia

2008

957

1,082,355

16.0

(14.7–17.5)

4,027

5,088,753

75.1

(73.3–76.8)

5,172

6,461,497

94.6

(93.6–95.4)

Louisiana

2007

3,224

1,585,357

54.0

(52.3–55.7)

5,191

2,513,071

85.2

(83.9–86.4)

5,882

2,836,825

95.4

(94.6–96.1)

Maryland

2007

1,136

1,031,932

26.9

(25.0–28.8)

3,207

3,050,542

79.7

(77.7–81.5)

3,910

3,668,318

94.9

(93.6–95.9)

Mississippi

2009

1,901

357,999

18.0

(16.9–19.3)

7,842

1,568,763

78.7

(77.6–79.9)

9,946

1,896,225

94.7

(94.1–95.3)

Montana

2006

2008

2010

3,776

397,797

19.2

(18.4–20.1)

13,284

1,522,456

74.2

(73.3–75.2)

18,177

2,004,263

96.4

(96.0–96.8)

Nebraska

2007

2008

2,231

519,381

21.0

(19.4–22.7)

8,197

2,043,232

82.6

(81.0–84.1)

9,793

2,404,766

96.5

(95.7–97.2)

Nevada

2006

1,029

473,114

28.6

(26.4–30.9)

2,479

1,191,252

72.3*

(69.7–74.7)

3,148

1,505,890

90.5

(88.3–92.2)

New Hampshire

2007

1,252

196,826

20.7

(19.5–22.1)

4,318

751,036

79.4

(78.1–80.7)

5,446

926,119

97.2

(96.5–97.7)

New York

2008

669

2,272,831

16.5

(15.1–18.0)

2,828

10,608,454

76.7

(74.9–78.4)

3,514

3,059,551

93.4*

(92.3–94.4)

North Carolina

2010

1,883

1,171,601

17.2

(16.1–18.5)

8,692

5,251,368

77.2

(76.0–78.5)

11,153

6,543,028

95.2

(94.5–95.8)

Pennsylvania

2008

1,081

1,392,433

15.0*

(13.7–16.4)

4,720

7,159,537

77.7

(76.0–79.3)

6,017

8,976,868

96.3

(95.5–97.0)

Tennessee

2006

1,469

1,486,798

34.6

(32.5–36.8)

3,146

3,359,894

78.5

(76.6–80.3)

3,881

4,016,717

93.8

(92.5–94.9)

Abbreviation: CI = confidence interval.

* Lowest percentage for preparedness measure among the 14 states.

Highest percentage for preparedness measure among the 14 states.


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