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Publications of OMHHE Authors

	Minority HealthScientific Articles written by staff in CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity (OMHHE), during their years of tenure at OMHHE. Please also see OMHHE Reports. For further information, please see CDC Publications.

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Strategies for Reducing Health Disparities, Selected CDC-Sponsored Interventions, United States, 2016

A major goal of public health is to reduce health disparities. Despite the persistence of disparities, progress is being made. Public health professionals can bolster the impact of strategies for reducing health disparities, disseminate and tailor these strategies to reach more communities, and determine how to expand these strategies for even greater impact by rigorously applying lessons learned from these efforts. Collaborating with affected communities, policymakers, and the health care system, health disparities can be reduced. Working together with multiple sectors that influence health outcomes, public health professionals can pursue health equity.

Penman-Aguilar A, Bouye K, Liburd L, Equity H. Background and Rationale. MMWR Suppl 2016; 65.

Liburd LC, Bouye KE, Penman-Aguilar A. Epilogue. MMWR Suppl 2016; 65.

Journal of Public Health Management & Practice

In collaboration with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, CDC published a special supplement to the Journal of Public Health Management & Practice focusing on health equity.

As defined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, health equity is the attainment of the highest level of health for all people. Population-level factors, such as the physical, built, social, and policy environments, can have a greater impact on health outcomes than individual-level factors. The root causes of health inequity can be directly linked to a failure to address these population-level factors. In addition, linkages between science, policy, and practice are critical to achieving health equity.

Ana Penman-Aguilar, PhD, MPH; Makram Talih, PhD; David Huang, PhD, MPH, CPH; Ramal Moonesinghe, PhD, MA, MS; Karen Bouye, PhD, MPH, MS; Gloria Beckles, MD, MSc
Measurement of Health Disparities, Health Inequities, and Social Determinants of Health to Support the Advancement of Health Equity. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2016 Jan-Feb;22 Suppl 1:S33-42. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000373. PubMed PMID:26599027

Dicent Taillepierre JC, Liburd L, OʼConnor A, Valentine J, Bouye K, McCree DH, Chapel T, Hahn R.
Toward Achieving Health Equity: Emerging Evidence and Program Practice. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2016 Jan-Feb;22 Suppl 1:S43-9. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000375. PubMed PMID: 26599028

Dean HD, Roberts GW, Bouye KE, Green Y, McDonald M.
Sustaining a Focus on Health Equity at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Through Organizational Structures and Functions.
J Public Health Manag Pract. 2016 Jan-Feb;22 Suppl 1:S60-7. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000305. PubMed PMID: 26599031

Liburd LC, Ehlinger E, Liao Y, Lichtveld M.
Strengthening the Science and Practice of Health Equity in Public Health.
J Public Health Manag Pract. 2016 Jan-Feb;22 Suppl 1:S1-4. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000379. No abstract available. PubMed PMID: 26599021

Hall M, Graffunder C, Metzler M.
Policy Approaches to Advancing Health Equity.
J Public Health Manag Pract. 2016 Jan-Feb;22 Suppl 1:S50-9. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000365. PubMed PMID: 26599030

Increasing Diversity in the Health Professions: Reflections on Student Pipeline Programs

Karen E. Bouye, Karl J. McCleary, and Kevin B. Williams. Increasing Diversity in the Health Professions: Reflections on Student Pipeline Programs.

 Journal of Healthcare, Science, and The Humanities. Spring, 2016, Volume VI, Number 1, published by the National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care located at Tuskegee University.

Despite major advances, there are still differences in health outcomes among different groups of people based on race and ethnicity, income, and education. A diverse public health and healthcare workforce is one way to increase access to and quality of healthcare. Student trainings programs in public health are one way to achieve a diverse public health and healthcare workforce. CDC’s Office of Minority Health and Health Equity has partnered with a variety of organizations to form and implement student training programs such as the Summer Public Health Scholars Program, the Kennedy Krieger Institute Programs, the Dr. James A. Ferguson Emerging Infectious Disease Graduate Fellowship Program, the Public Health Leadership and Learning Undergraduate Student Success Program, Project IMHOTEP, and the Future Public Health Leaders Program.  This paper highlights a session “Public Health Professions Enhancement Programs” that was held during the 2015 symposium titled “National Negro Health Week to National Minority Health Month: 100 Years of Moving Public Health Forward” in Atlanta, Georgia.


  1. Sonja S Hutchins, Cedric Brown, Robert Mayberry, William Sollecito
    Value of a small control group for estimating intervention effectiveness: results from simulations of immunization effectiveness studies.
    Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 2015 May 11. Vol. 4, No. 3, Pages 227-238. PubMed PMID: 25959743
  2. Kenneth Dominguez, Ana Penman-Aguilar, Man-Huei Chang, Ramal Moonesinghe, Ted Castellanos, Alfonso Rodriguez-Lainz, Richard Schieber
    Vital Signs: Leading Causes of Death, Prevalence of Diseases and Risk Factors, and Use of Health Services Among Hispanics in the United States — 2009–2013.
    MMWR Weekly, May 8, 2015 / 64(17);469-478.
  3. Chang MH, Moonesinghe R, Athar HM, Truman BI
    Trends in Disparity by Sex and Race/Ethnicity for the Leading Causes of Death in the United States-1999-2010.
    J Public Health Manag Pract, 2015 May 5. [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed PMID: 25946701


  1. Ramal Moonesinghe, Karen Bouye, Ana Penman-Aguilar
    Difference in Health Inequity between Two Population Groups due to a Social Determinant of Health.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, December 16, 2014; 11(12):13074-83. PubMed PMID: 25522048
  2. Tanya Telfair LeBlanc PhD, MS, Laurie Reid BSN, Hazel D. Dean ScD, MPH, Yvonne Green RN, CNM, MSN
    Introduction: Health Equity among Incarcerated Female Adolescents and Adult Women: Infectious and Other Disease Morbidity.
    Women & Health, November 6, 2014; 54(8):687-693. PubMed PMID: 25375857
  3. Wayne A. Duffus, Cynthia Trawick, Ramal Moonesinghe, Jigsa Tola, Benedict I. Truman, Hazel D. Dean
    Training Racial and Ethnic Minority Students for Careers in Public Health Sciences.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine, November, 2014; 47(5 Supplement 3):S368-S375. PubMed PMID: 25439259
  4. Man-Huei Chang, Michael T. Molla, Benedict I. Truman, Heba Athar, Ramal Moonesinghe, Paula W. Yoon
    Differences in healthy life expectancy for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region: 2008.
    Journal of Public Health, August 30, 2014. PubMed PMID: 25174043
  5. Priscilla A. Barnes, Paul C. Erwin, Ramal Moonesinghe
    Measures of Highly Functioning Health Coalitions: Corollaries for an Effective Public Health System.
    Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research, August, 2014; 3(3): Article 1
  6. Leandris C. Liburd PhD, MPH, MA, Vincent A. Campbell, PhD, Karen E. Bouye, PhD
    MMWR Supplements, Strategies for Reducing Health Disparities — Selected CDC-Sponsored Interventions, United States, 2014. April 18, 2014 / 63(01); 47-48
  7. Ana Penman-Aguilar, PhD, Karen Bouye, PhD, Leandris C. Liburd, PhD, MPH, MA
    Background and Rationale.
    MMWR Supplements, Strategies for Reducing Health Disparities — Selected CDC-Sponsored Interventions, United States, 2014. April 18, 2014 / 63(01); 3-4
  8. Leonard Jack Jr, PhD, MSc1, Leandris C. Liburd, PhD, MPH, MA, Pattie Tucker, DrPH, MPH, RN, Tarisha Cockrell, MPH
    Having Their Say: Patients’ Perspectives and the Clinical Management of Diabetes.
    Clinical Therapeutics, Volume 36, Number 4, April 1, 2014. PMID: 24731864
  9. Penman-Aguilar, A, Macaluso M, Peacock N, Snead MC, Posner SF.
    A Novel Approach to Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in HIV and STI Prevention Research.
    AIDS Educ Prev., 2014 Apr;26(2):95-108. PMID: 24694324.
  10. Snead MC, Kourtis AP, Melendez JH, Black CM, Mauck CK, Ana Penman-Aguilar, PhD, Chaney DM, Gallo MF, Jamieson DJ, Macaluso M, Doncel GF.
    Does tenofovir gel or do other microbicide products affect detection of biomarkers of semen exposure in vitro?
    Contraception, 2014 Mar 25. PMID: 24746557
  11. Studnicki J, Ekezue BF, Tsulukidze M, Honoré P, Ramal Moonesinghe, PhD, Fisher J.>
    Classification tree analysis of race-specific subgroups at risk for a central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection.
    Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf., 2014 Mar;40(3):134-43. PubMed PMID: 24730209
  12. Benem-Orom Davids, Sonja Hutchins, MD, Camara P. Jones, Jessie R. Hood
    Disparities in Life Expectancy Across US Counties Linked to County Social Factors, 2009 Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI).
    J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, V1, I1, March, 2014, pp. 2-11.


  1. Leandris C. Liburd, Wayne Giles, and Leonard Jack Jr.
    Health Equity: The Cornerstone of a Healthy Community.
    National Civic Review, Special Issue: Twenty-Five Years of Healthy Communities: Part 1, Winter Dec, 2013 / 102(4);52-54.
  2. Jamshidi R; Penman-Aguilar, A; Wiener J; Gallo MF; Zenilman JM; Melendez JH; Snead M; Black CM; Jamieson DJ; Macaluso M.
    Detection of two biological markers of intercourse: prostate-specific antigen and Y-chromosomal DNA.
    Contraception, 2013 Dec; 88(6); 749-57. PubMed PMID: 24028752
  3. Ana Penman-Aguilar, PhD, MPH; Kathleen McDavid Harrison, PhD, MPH; Hazel D. Dean, ScD, MPH.
    Identifying the Root Causes of Health Inequities: Reflections on the 2011 National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Health Equity Symposium.
    Public Health Reports, Nov/Dec, 2013, Volume 128, Supplement 3: Applying Social Determinants of Health to Public Health Practice. PubMed PMID: 24179276
  4. Pamela A. Meyer, PhD; Ana Penman-Aguilar, PhD; Vincent A. Campbell. PhD; Corinne Graffunder, DrPH; Ann E. O'Connor, MPA; Paula W. Yoon, ScD.
    Conclusion and Future Directions: CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report — United States, 2013.
    MMWR Supplements, November 22, 2013 / 62(03);184-186.
  5. Gina Thornton-Evans, DDS, Paul Eke, PhD, Liang Wei, MS, Astrid Palmer, Refilwe Moeti, MA, Sonja Hutchins, MD; Luisa N. Borrell, DDS.
    Periodontitis Among Adults Aged ≥30 Years — United States, 2009–2010.
    MMWR Supplements, November 22, 2013 / 62(03);129-135
  6. Ramal Moonesinghe, PhD; Man-huei Chang, MPH; Benedict I. Truman, MD.
    Health Insurance Coverage — United States, 2008 and 2010.
    MMWR Supplements, November 22, 2013 / 62(03);61-64
  7. Snead MC, Kourtis AP, Black CM, Mauck CK, Brown TM, Penman-Aguilar A, Melendez JH, Gallo MF, Jamieson DJ, Macaluso M.
    Effect of topical vaginal products on the detection of prostate-specific antigen, a biomarker of semen exposure, using ABAcards.
    Contraception, 2013 Sep;88(3):382-6. PubMed PMID: 23218862
  8. Man-Huei Chang, MPH, Heba Athar, MD, Paula W. Yoon, ScD, Michael T. Molla, PhD, Benedict I. Truman, MD, Ramal Moonesinghe, PhD
    State-Specific Healthy Life Expectancy at Age 65 Years — United States, 2007–2009.
    MMWR Weekly, July 19, 2013, Volume 62, No. 28; 561-566
  9. Gallo MF, Snead MC, Black CM, Brown TM, Kourtis AP, Jamieson DJ, Carter M, Penman-Aguilar A, Macaluso M
    Optimal methods for collecting and storing vaginal specimens for prostate-specific antigen testing in research studies.
    Contraception, 2013 Jun;87(6):830-5. PubMed PMID: 23121826
  10. Penman-Aguilar A, Carter M, Snead MC, Kourtis AP.
    Socioeconomic Disadvantage as a Social Determinant of Teen Childbearing in the U.S..
    Public Health Rep., 2013 Mar;128 Suppl 1:5-22. PubMed PMID: 23450881
  11. Bouye, K., Moonesinghe, R., Murphy, F.
    Defining Community Boundaries and Conducting Community Assessments: Community Engagement Organization and Development (CEOD)
    Methods and Practices in Community Engagement, Organization, and Development for Public Health Practice (New York: 2013)


  1. Moonesinghe, R., Fleming, E.,Truman, B., Hogben, M.,Dean, H.
    Linear and Non-Linear Associations of Gonorrhea Diagnosis Rates with Social Determinants of Health.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health., 2012 September;9(9):3149-3165.
  2. Barnes PA, Curtis AB, Hall-Downey L, Moonesinghe R.
    A multistate examination of partnership activity among local public health systems using the National Public Health Performance Standards.
    J Public Health Manag Pract., 2012 Sep-Oct;18(5):E14-23. PMID: 22836543
  3. Penman-Aguilar A, Whiteman MK, Cox S, Posner SF, Meikle SF, Kourtis AP, Jamieson DJ.
    Complications of Common Gynecologic Surgeries among HIV-Infected Women in the United States.
    Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol., 2012;2012:610876. Epub 2012 May 17. PMID: 22675242
  4. Whiteman MK, Cox S, Tepper NK, Curtis KM, Jamieson DJ, Penman-Aguilar A, Marchbanks PA.
    Postpartum intrauterine device insertion and postpartum tubal sterilization in the United States.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol., 2012 Feb;206(2):127. PubMed PMID: 21963319


  1. Dahlgren FS, Moonesinghe R, McQuiston JH
    Short report: Race and rickettsiae: a United States perspective.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Dec;85(6):1124-5. PubMed PMID: 22144456
  2. Mihaescu R, Moonesinghe R, Khoury M J, Janssens AC.
    Predictive Genetic Testing for the Identification of High-Risk Groups: a simulation study on the impact of predictive ability.
    Genome Med. 2011 Jul 28; 3(7): 51.
  3. Honore PA, Fos PJ, Wang X, Moonesinghe R.
    The Effects on Population Health Status of Using Dedicated Property Taxes to Fund Local Public Health Agencies.
    BMC Public Health. 2011 June 14; 11:471.
  4. Liao Y, Bang D, Cosgrove S, Dulin R, Harris Z. Taylor A, White S, Yatabe G, Liburd, L, Giles W; DACH, NCCDPHP, CDC.
    Surveillance of Health Status in Minority Communities - Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Health Across the US (REACH US) Risk Factor Survey, US, 2009.
    MMWR Surveill Summ. 2011 May 20; 60(6):1-44.
  5. Hutch D, Bouye K, Skillen E, Lee C, Whitehead L, Rashid JR.
    Potential strategies to eliminate built environment disparities for disadvantaged and vulnerable communities.
    Am J Public Health, 2011 April; 101(4):587. Epub 2011 Feb 10.
  6. Howell SL, Tucker P, Liburd, L.
    Envionmental and Policy Approaches to Increasing Physical Activity: improving access to places for physical activity and dissemination of information.
    Glob Health Promot. 2011 Mar; 18(1): 43-6.
  7. Liburd, LC.
    Forword. REACH US in action: inspiring hope, rewarding courage.
    Fam Community Health. 2011 Jan-Mar; 34 Suppl 1: S2-6.
  8. Moonesinghe R, Khoury MJ, Liu T, Janssens AC.
    Discriminative accuracy of genomic profiling comparing multiplicative and additive risk models.
    Eur J Hum Genet. 2011 Feb; 19(2):180-5. Epub 2010 Nov 17.
  9. Beckles GL, Zhu J, Moonesinghe R; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
    Diabetes - United States, 2004 and 2008.
    MMWR Surveill Summ. 2011 Jan 14; 60 Suppl:90-3.
  10. Moonesinghe R, Zhu J, Truman BI; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
    Health Insurance Coverage - United States, 2004 and 2008.
    MMWR Surveill Summ. 2011 Jan 14; 60 Suppl:35-7.
  11. Truman BI, Smith KC, Roy K, Chen Z, Moonesinghe R, Zhu J, Crawford CG, Zaza S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
    Rationale for Regular Reporting on Health Disparities and Inequalities - United States.
    MMWR Surveill Summ. 2011 Jan 14; 60 Suppl:3-10.


  1. Moonesinghe R, Liu T, Khoury MJ.
    Evaluation of the discriminative accuracy of genomic profiling in the prediction of common complex diseases.
    Eur J Hum Genet. 2010 Apr;18(4):485-9. Epub 2009 Nov 25.
  2. Moonesinghe R, Yesupriya A, Chang MH, Dowling NF, Khoury MJ; Alastair J. Scott for the CDC/NCI NHANES III Genomics Working Group.
    A Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Test for Analyzing Population Genetic Surveys With Complex Sample Designs.
    Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr 15;171(8):932-41.
  3. Yang Q, Liu T, Valdez R, Moonesinghe R, Khoury MJ.
    Improvements in ability to detect undiagnosed diabetes by using information on family history among adults in the United States.
    Am J Epidemiol. 2010 May 15;171(10):1079-89. Epub 2010 Apr 25.
  4. Ned RM, Yesupriya A, Imperatore G, Smelser DT, Moonesinghe R, Chang MH, Dowling NF.
    Inflammation gene variants and susceptibility to albuminuria in the U.S. population: analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1991-1994.
    BMC Med Genet. 2010 Nov 5;11:155.


  1. Sonja S. Hutchins, Benedict I. Truman, Toby L. Merlin, and Stephen C. Redd.
    Protecting Vulnerable Populations From Pandemic Influenza in the United States: A Strategic Imperative.
    Am J Public Health. 2009 99: S243-S248, 10.2105/AJPH.2009.
  2. Sonja S. Hutchins, Kevin Fiscella, Robert S. Levine, Danielle C. Ompad, and Marian McDonald.
    Protection of Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations During an Influenza Pandemic .
    Am J Public Health. 2009 99: S261-S270, 10.2105/AJPH.2009.
  3. Amy V. Groom, Cheyenne Jim, Mic LaRoque, Cheryl Mason, Joe McLaughlin, Lisa Neel, Terry Powell, Thomas Weiser, and Ralph T. Bryan.
    Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Vulnerable Populations in Tribal Communities.
    Am J Public Health. 2009 99: S271-S278, 10.2105 / AJPH 2008.
  4. Benedict I. Truman, Timothy Tinker, Elaine Vaughan, Bryan K. Kapella, Marta Brenden, Celine V. Woznica, Elena Rios, and Maureen Lichtveld.
    Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Among Immigrants and Refugees.
    Am J Public Health. 2009 99: S278-S286, 10.2105 / AJPH 2008.
  5. Karen Bouye, Benedict I. Truman, Sonja Hutchins, Roland Richard, Clive Brown, Joyce A. Guillory, and Jamilla Rashid.
    Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Among Public-Housing Residents, Single-Parent Families, and Low-Income Populations.
    Am J Public Health. 2009 99: S287-S293, 10.2105/AJPH.2009.
  6. George Rust, Mollie Melbourne, Benedict I. Truman, Elvan Daniels, Yvonne Fry-Johnson, and Thomas Curtin.
    Role of the Primary Care Safety Net in Pandemic Influenza.
    Am J Public Health. 2009 99: S316-S323, 10.2105/AJPH.2009.
  7. Alvarez M, Jakmola P, Painter TM, Dicent Taillepierre J, Romaguera RA, Herbst JH, Wolitski RJ.
    Summary Comments and Recommendations from the CDC Consultation on the HIV/AIDS Epidemic and Prevention in the Hispanic/Latino Community.
    AIDS Education and Prevention 2009 Oct; 21(5 Suppl) 7-18.
  8. Kruger DJ, Lewis, Y, Schlemmer E.
    Mapping a Message for Faith Leaders: Encouraging Community Health Promotion With Local Health Data.
    Health Promot Pract.. 2009 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Chang MH, Lindegren ML, Butler MA, Chanock SJ, Dowling NF, Gallagher M, Moonesinghe R, Moore CA, Ned RM, Reichler MR, Sanders CL, Welch R, Yesupriya A, Khoury MJ; CDC/NCI NHANES III Genomics Working Group.
    Prevalence in the United States of selected candidate gene variants: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1991-1994.
    Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Jan 1;169(1):54-66. Epub 2008 Oct 20.
  10. Roy K, Haddix AC, Ikeda RM, Curry CW, Truman BI, Thacker SB.
    Monitoring progress toward CDC's health protection goals: health outcome measures by life stage.
    Public Health Rep.. 2009 Mar-Apr;124(2):304-16.
  11. Liu T, Valdez R, Yoon PW, Crocker D, Moonesinghe R, Khoury MJ.
    The association between family history of asthma and the prevalence of asthma among US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 – 2004.
    Genet Med 2009:11(5):323–328.
  12. Moonesinghe R, Jones W, Honore P A, Truman B I, Graham G.
    Genomic medicine and racial/ethnic health disparities: promises, perils, and the challenges for health care and public health policy.
    Ethn Dis. 2009 Autumn; 19(4):473-8.
  13. Gooch BF, Griffin SO, Gray, SK, Kohn WG, Rozier RG, Siegal M, Fontana M, Brunson D, Carter N, Curtis DK, Donly KJ, Haering H, Hill LF, Hinson, HP, Kumar J, Lampiris L, Mallatt M, Meyer DM, Miller WR, Sanzi-Schaedel SM, Simonsen R, Truman BI, Zero DT, CDC.
    Preventing Dental Caries through School-based Sealant Programs:Updated Recommendations and Reviews of Evidence
    J Am Dent Assoc. 2009 Nov;140(11):1356-65.
  14. Yang Q, Flanders WD, Moonesinghe R, Ioannidis JP, Guessous I, Khoury MJ.
    Using Lifetime Risk Estimates in Personal Genomic Profiles: Estimation of Uncertainty.
    Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Dec;85(6):786-800.


  1. Moonesinghe R, Khoury MJ, Liu T, Ioannidis JPA.
    Required sample size and non-replicability thresholds for heterogeneous genetic associations.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. January 15, 2008; 105 (2): 617-22.
  2. Hutchins SS, Sulemana I, Heilpern KL, Schaffner W, Wax G, Lerner EB, Watson B, Baltimore R, Waltenburg RA, Aronsky D, Coffin S, Ng G, Craig AS, Behrman A, Meek J, Sherman E, Chavez SS, Harpaz R, Schmid S.;
    Performance of an algorithm for assessing smallpox risk among patients with rashes that may be confused with smallpox.
    Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 15;46 Suppl 3:S195-203.
  3. Hutchins SS, Birkhead GS, Kenyan K, Abellera J, Lemmings J; Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists Smallpox Working Group.
    Public health surveillance for suspected smallpox in the United States, 2003-2005: results of a national survey.
    Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 15;46 Suppl 3:S204-11.
  4. Jones CP, Truman BI, Elam-Evans LD, Jones CA, Jones CY, Jiles R, Rumisha SF, Perry GS.
    Using "socially assigned race" to probe white advantages in health status.
    Ethn Dis. . 2008 Autumn;18(4):496-504.
  5. Moonesinghe R, Yang Q, Khoury MJ.
    Sample size requirements to detect the effect of a group of genetic variants in case-control studies.
    Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 2008 Dec 3;5:24.


  1. McNabb SJ, Jajosky RA, Hall-Baker PA, Adams DA, Sharp P, Anderson WJ, Javier AJ, Jones GJ, Nitschke DA, Worshams CA, Richard RA Jr, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    Summary of Notifiable Diseases---United States, 2005.
    MMWR March 20, 2007;54(53):1-92


  1. Williams WW, Hutchins SS, Orenstein WA, Rodewald L.
    Book Chapter: Immunization and Preventive Care Multi-cultural Medicine and Health Disparities,
    David Satcher, Reubens J. Pamies, Nancy N. Woelfl (Editors),
    McGraw-Hill, NY, 2006, pp 233-249.
  2. McPheeters M, Briss PA, Teutsch SM, Truman BI.
    Systematic Reviews in Public Health
    (Chapter 4), In Applied Epidemiology: Theory to Practice,
    2nd Ed; Brownson RC, Petitti DB, Eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.


  1. Harris Benita L.
    Notice to Readers: Satellite Broadcast on Rapid Testing for HIV.
    MMWR July 23, 2004;53(28):639.
  2. Williams WW.
    Health Disparities Experienced by Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations.
    MMWR August 27, 2004;53(33):755.
  3. Williams WW.
    Health Disparities Experienced by Hispanics---United States.
    MMWR October 15, 2004;53(40):935-937.


  1. Randall VR, Safford G, Williams WW.
    Public health preparedness and the law in communities of color.
    J Law Med Ethics. 2003 Winter; 31(4Suppl):45-6.
  2. Euler GL, Wooten KG, Baughman AL, Williams WW.
    Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence among pregnant women in urban areas: implications for testing, reporting, and preventing perinatal transmission.
    Pediatrics. 2003 May; 111(5 part 2):1192-7.
  3. Euler GL, Copeland J, Williams WW.
    Impact of four urban perinatal hepatitis B prevention programs on screening and vaccination of infants and household members.
    Am J Epidemiol. 2003 April 15; l57(8):747-53.
  4. Euler GL, Copeland JR, Rangel MC, Williams WW.
    Antibody response to postexposure prophylaxis in infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive women.
    Pediatric Infect Dis J. 2003 Feb; 22(2):123-9.


  1. DeStefano F, Gu D, Kramarz P, Truman BI, Iademarco MF, Mullooly JP, Jackson LA, Davis RL, Black SB, Shinefield HR, Marcy SM, Ward JI, Chen RT; Vaccine Safety Datalink Research Group.;
    Childhood vaccinations and risk of asthma.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002 Jun;21(6):498-504.
  2. Truman BI, Gooch BF, Sulemana I, et al.
    Reviews of evidence on interventions to prevent dental caries, oral and pharyngeal cancers, and sports-related craniofacial injuries.
    Am J Prev Med. 2002;23 (suppl 1):21--54.


  1. Dykewicz CA, Kruszon-Moran D, McQuillan GM, Williams, WW, et al.;
    Rubella Seropositivity in the United States, 1988-1994.
    Clin Infect Dis 2001, Oct 15; 33(8):1287.


  1. Bath S, Singleton JA, Strikas RA, Williams, WW;
    Performance of United States hospitals on recommended screening and immunization practices for pregnant and postpartum women.
    Am J Infect Control 2000 Oct; 28(5): 327-332.
  2. Truman BI, Smith-Akin CK, Hinman AR, et al.
    Developing the Guide to Community Preventive Services---overview and rationale.
    Am J Prev Med 2000;18(Suppl 1):18--26.