Awarded New Investigator/Doctoral Dissertation Grant
Intimate Partner Violence Among Low-Income Pregnant Women: Multilevel Analysis
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health issue during pregnancy. It warrants special attention to risk assessment and primary prevention from an ecological perspective and a direct approach to potential perpetrators during this transitional period to parenthood. However, most recent studies have focused on IPV against women in general; were small (ranged from 157 cases locally to 1,440 couples nationally); relied on police crime reports or national surveys, which are prone to selection and reporting bias; and focused on individual victim risk factors. Secondary data analysis will focus on the male.
Researchers will examine whether and how individual and family factors are associated with the woman’s IPV experience during pregnancy; how neighborhood-level risk factors are associated with IPV; and whether individual-, family-, and neighborhood-level factors jointly influence IPV risk and ascertain cross-level main and interactive effects. The proposed study will analyze neighborhood data from the 2000 Census and local Sheriff and Police 1997-2001 crime reports. The individual and family level data is from face-to-face interviews conducted during the Rural Perinatal Emphasis Research Center project at the University of Alabama at Birmingham in 1997-2001. It included a sample of 3,032 low-income women (82.9% African American) in prenatal care visits in four county health departments in Birmingham. The neighborhood is defined as a census tract. The geocoding rate is 98.3%; one third of the current sample size could achieve at least 80% power. It will incorporate a multi-level (two-level) analysis (e.g., SAS GLIMMIX macro) for precise and robust estimates. The results of this study can guide the development of future IPV interventions that target males, and that also reduce the risk of IPV during pregnancy at multiple levels.
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