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Guideline for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings, 2011

GRADE Table Q1 What person, virus or environmental characteristics increase or decrease the risk of norovirus infection in healthcare settings?

Person characteristics

Clinical characteristics

Comparison Outcome Quantity and type of evidence Findings Starting grade Decrease GRADE Increase GRADE GRADE of Evidence for Outcome Overall GRADE of Evidence Base
S
t
u
d
y
 
Q
u
a
l
i
t
y
**
C
o
n
s
i
s
t
e
n
c
y
**
D
i
r
e
c
t
n
e
s
s
**
P
r
e
c
i
s
i
o
n
**
P
u
b
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
 
B
i
a
s
**
L
a
r
g
e
 
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
**
D
o
s
e
-
r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
C
o
n
f
o
u
n
d
e
r
s
HIV Symptomatic norovirus infection* 1 OBS 68 HIV infected children with chronic diarrhea were a possible risk factor compared with HIV uninfected children with chronic diarrhea in 1 OBS in the healthcare setting 68 Low 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 Very Low Very Low
Asymptomatic norovirus infection 2 OBS 60,65 HIV positive children were a possible risk factor compared with HIV negative children in 1 OBS in the community setting. HIV positive adults were not a risk factor 60
 
Presence of HIV infection or the degree of immunocompromise was not a risk factor in 1 OBS in the healthcare setting 65
Low 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Low
Immune comorbidities Acute kidney disease* 1 OBS 57 Immunosuppresive therapy was an independent risk factor for an increase in serum creatinine in 1 OBS in the healthcare setting 57 Low 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 Very Low very Low
Other comorbidities Duration of illness* 1 OBS 57 Presence of underlying cardiovascular disorders was an independent risk factor for increased duration of vomiting in 1 OBS in the healthcare setting. Underlying malignancy and underlying trauma were independent risk factors for an increased duration of diarrhea. Presence of underlying gastrointestinal disorders was a possible risk factor for increased duration of diarrhea 57 Low 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 very Low Very Low
Acute kidney disease 1 OBS 57 Presence of underlying cardiovascular disorders and renal transplant were independent risk factors for potassium decrease in 1 OBS in the healthcare setting. Underlying trauma was a possible risk factor for an increase in serum creatinine 57 Low 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 Very Low

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