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Physical Activity Facts


Physical Activity and the Health of Young People


Benefits of Regular Physical Activity

Regular physical activity—

  • Helps build and maintain healthy bones and muscles.1
  • Helps reduce the risk of developing obesity and chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer.1
  • Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety and promotes psychological well-being.1
  • May help improve students’ academic performance, including
    • Academic achievement and grades
    • Academic behavior, such as time on task
    • Factors that influence academic achievement, such as concentration and attentiveness in the classroom.4

Long-Term Consequences of Physical Inactivity

  • Overweight and obesity, which are influenced by physical inactivity and poor diet, can increase one’s risk for diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, asthma, arthritis, and poor health status.5-7
  • Physical inactivity increases one’s risk for dying prematurely, dying of heart disease, and developing diabetes, colon cancer, and high blood pressure.1

Participation in Physical Activity by Young People

  • In a nationally representative survey, 77% of children aged 9–13 years reported participating in free-time physical activity during the previous 7 days.4
     
  • In 2011, only 29% percent of high school students had participated in at least 60 minutes per day of physical activity on each of the 7 days before the survey.3
     
  • Fourteen percent of high school students had not participated in 60 or more minutes of any kind of physical activity on any day during the 7 days before the survey.3

  • Participation in physical activity declines as young people age.3

Percentage of High School Students Participating in Physical Activity and Physical Education, by Sex, 20113

Type of Activity Females Males
At least 60 minutes/day of physical activitya 18.5% 38.3%
Attended physical education class dailyb 27.2% 34.6%

aAny kind of physical activity that increased heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time for at least 60 minutes per day on each of the 7 days before the survey.

b Attended physical education classes 5 days in an average week when they were in school.

Participation in Physical Education Classes

  • In 2011, over half (52%) of high school students (68% of 9th-grade students but only 38% of 12th-grade students) attended physical education classes in an average week.3
  • The percentage of high school students who attended physical education classes daily decreased from 42% in 1991 to 25% in 1995 and remained stable at that level until 2011 (31%).3
  • In 2011, 41% of 9th-grade students but only 24% of 12th-grade students attended physical education class daily.3


References

  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. 
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. 
  3. CDC. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2011. MMWR 2012;61(SS-4).
  4. CDC. The Association Between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2010.
  5. Daniels S, Arnett D, Eckel R, et al. Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Circulation 2005;111:1999–2012.
  6. Institute of Medicine. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2004.
  7. Dietz WH. Overweight in childhood and adolescence. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;350:855–857.
  8. CDC. Physical activity levels among children aged 9–13 years—United States, 2002. MMWR 2003;52(SS-33):785–788.

 

 
  
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