Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine [LAIV] (The Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine)
Questions & Answers
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- What flu viruses does the nasal spray vaccine protect against?
- Are any of the available flu vaccines recommended over others?
- Who can be vaccinated with the nasal spray flu vaccine?
- Who should not be vaccinated with the nasal spray flu vaccine?
- How effective is the nasal spray flu vaccine?
- Should the nasal spray flu vaccine be given to patients with chronic diseases?
- Should pregnant and postpartum women avoid contact with people who were recently vaccinated with the nasal spray vaccine?
- Can breastfeeding mothers get the nasal spray flu vaccine?
- Can the nasal spray flu vaccine be given to patients when they are ill?
All nasal spray flu vaccines for the 2015-2016 season will provide protection against four flu viruses: an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus and two influenza B viruses.
For the 2015-2016 flu season, ACIP recommends annual influenza vaccination for everyone 6 months and older with either LAIV or IIV with no preference expressed when either vaccine is available.
There are many vaccine options to choose from, but the most important thing is for all people 6 months and older to get a flu vaccine every year. If you have questions about which vaccine is best for you, talk to your doctor or other health care professional.
The nasal spray is approved for use in people 2 through 49 years of age.
- Children younger than 2 years
- Adults 50 years and older
- People with a history of severe allergic reaction to any component of the vaccine or to a previous dose of any influenza vaccine
- People who are allergic to eggs
- Children 2 years through 17 years of age who are receiving aspirin therapy or aspirin-containing therapy.
- Pregnant women
- People with weakened immune systems (immunosuppression)
- Children 2 years through 4 years who have asthma or who have had a history of wheezing in the past 12 months.
- People who have taken influenza antiviral drugs within the previous 48 hours.
- People who care for severely immunocompromised persons who require a protective environment (or otherwise avoid contact with those persons for 7 days after getting the nasal spray vaccine).
There are also other “warnings and precautions” for the nasal spray flu vaccine. These include:
- People of any age with asthma might be at increased risk for wheezing after getting the nasal spray vaccine.
- The safety of the nasal spray vaccine has not been established in people with underlying medical conditions that place them at high risk of serious flu complications. This includes children and adults who have lung disease, heart disease (except isolated hypertension), kidney disease (like diabetes), kidney or liver disorders, neurologic/neuromuscular, or metabolic disorders. See “People at High Risk of Developing Flu–Related Complications.” Moderate or severe acute illness with or without fever is a general precaution for vaccination.
- GBS within 6 weeks following a previous dose of influenza vaccine is considered a precaution for use of all influenza vaccines.
Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) can vary from year to year, among different age and risk groups and by vaccine type. Both the nasal spray vaccine and the flu shot have been shown to be effective in children and adults. While some early studies suggested that the nasal spray vaccine might be more effective in young children, more recent studies have not confirmed that. ACIP and CDC do not have a preference for either the shot or the nasal spray vaccine. For more information about vaccine effectiveness, visit How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work? For information specific to this season, visit About the Current Flu Season.
There is a precaution against giving the nasal spray flu vaccine to people with certain chronic health conditions because the safety of this vaccine in people with those conditions has not been established.
Should pregnant and postpartum women avoid contact with people who were recently vaccinated with the nasal spray vaccine?
Pregnant and postpartum women do not need to avoid contact with persons recently vaccinated with the nasal spray flu vaccine. However, the nasal spray flu vaccine should not be given to women who are pregnant. Postpartum women can receive the flu shot or the nasal spray flu vaccine.
Breastfeeding is not a contraindication for the nasal spray vaccine. Breastfeeding mothers younger than 50 years can get the nasal spray flu vaccine as long as they don’t have any contraindication to getting that vaccine. See Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) – United States, 2015-2016 Influenza Season - August 7, 2015 for a list of contraindications and precautions for the nasal spray vaccine.
The nasal spray flu vaccine can be given to people with mild illnesses (e.g., diarrhea or mild upper respiratory tract infection with or without fever). However, if nasal congestion is present that might limit delivery of the vaccine to the nasal lining. Delaying vaccination with that vaccine until the nasal congestion is reduced should be considered.
- Page last reviewed: August 21, 2015
- Page last updated: September 4, 2015
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