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Chikungunya virus in the United States

  • In 2014, chikungunya was not a nationally notifiable disease in the United States. However, chikungunya cases could be reported to ArboNET, the national surveillance system for arthropod-borne diseases.
  • From 2006‒2013, studies identified an average of 28 people per year in the United States with positive tests for recent chikungunya virus infection (Range 5‒65 per year). All were travelers visiting or returning to the United States from affected areas, mostly in Asia. Only a quarter of the cases were reported to ArboNET.
  • Beginning in 2014, cases were identified in travelers returning from the Caribbean. As of January 13, 2015, a total of 2,344 chikungunya virus disease cases have been reported to ArboNET from U.S. states for 2014 (Table 1). Eleven locally-transmitted cases have been reported from Florida (Figure 1). All other cases occurred in travelers returning from affected areas in the Americas (N=2,306), Asia (N=15), or the Pacific Islands (N=12).
  • A total of 4,462 chikungunya virus disease cases have been reported to ArboNET from U.S. territories (Table 2) for 2014. Of these, 4,416 were locally-transmitted cases reported from Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. The remaining 46 cases occurred in travelers returning from other affected areas in the Americas (N=45) or Asia (N=1).
  • With the recent outbreaks in the Americas and the Pacific, the number of chikungunya cases among travelers visiting or returning to the United States from affected areas will continue to increase. These imported cases could result in local spread of the virus in the continental United States.

Chikungunya virus disease cases reported by state – United States, 2014 (as of January 13, 2015)

Map of the United States showing locally acquired cases of Chikungunya in Florida and travel-associated cases reported in Arizona, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, US Virgin Islands, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin
Table 1. Laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus disease cases reported to ArboNET by state— United States, 2014 (as of January 13, 2015)*
State Travel-associated cases
(N=2,333)
Locally-transmitted cases
(N=11)
No. (%) No. (%)
Alabama 18 (1) 0 (0)
Arizona 14 (1) 0 (0)
Arkansas 6 (<1) 0 (0)
California 77 (3) 0 (0)
Colorado 13 (1) 0 (0)
Connecticut 31 (2) 0 (0)
Delaware 7 (<1) 0 (0)
District of Columbia 14 (1) 0 (0)
Florida 420 (18) 11 (100)
Georgia 28 (1) 0 (0)
Hawaii 9 (<1) 0 (0)
Idaho 1 (<1) 0 (0)
Illinois 13 (1) 0 (0)
Indiana 23 (1) 0 (0)
Iowa 4 (<1) 0 (0)
Kansas 13 (1) 0 (0)
Kentucky 23 (1) 0 (0)
Louisiana 12 (1) 0 (0)
Maine 6 (<1) 0 (0)
Maryland 57 (2) 0 (0)
Massachusetts 157 (7) 0 (0)
Michigan 16 (1) 0 (0)
Minnesota
24 (1) 0 (0)
Mississippi 8 (<1) 0 (0)
Missouri 15 (1) 0 (0)
Nebraska
7 (<1) 0 (0)
Nevada 3 (<1) 0 (0)
New Hampshire 22 (1) 0 (0)
New Jersey 160 (7) 0 (0)
New Mexico 2 (<1) 0 (0)
New York 688 (29) 0 (0)
North Carolina 36 (2) 0 (0)
Ohio 39 (2) 0 (0)
Oklahoma 11 (<1) 0 (0)
Oregon 5 (<1) 0 (0)
Pennsylvania 91 (4) 0 (0)
Rhode Island 46 (2) 0 (0)
South Carolina 18 (1) 0 (0)
South Dakota 2 (<1) 0 (0)
Tennessee 40 (2) 0 (0)
Texas 69 (3) 0 (0)
Utah 2 (<1) 0 (0)
Vermont 3 (<1) 0 (0)
Virginia 50 (2) 0 (0)
Washington 11 (<1) 0 (0)
West Virginia 2 (<1) 0 (0)
Wisconsin 17 (1) 0 (0)

*Chikungunya was not a nationally notifiable disease in 2014.

 

Table 2. Laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus disease cases reported to ArboNET by territory — United States, 2014 (as of January 13, 2015)*
Territory Travel-associated cases
(N=46)
Locally-transmitted cases
(N=4,416)
No. (%) No. (%)
Puerto Rico† 32 (70) 4,168 (94)
US Virgin Islands‡ 14 (30) 248 (6)

*Chikungunya was not a nationally notifiable disease in 2014.
†Additional information available from the Puerto Rico Department of Health.
‡Additional information available from the U.S. Virgin Islands Department of Health.

 

 
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