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Infant Feeding Practices Study II and Its Year Six Follow-Up

photo of a woman feeding a babyCDC worked closely with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II) in 2005–2007. IFPS II was a longitudinal study focusing on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life and the diets of women in their 3rd trimester and at four months postpartum. Infant feeding behaviors include patterns of breastfeeding, formula feeding, solid food intake, and feeding other complementary foods and liquids. IFPS II was conducted using monthly mail questionnaires to a sample from a national mail panel. In 2012, FDA and CDC conducted the Year Six Follow-Up (Y6FU) of the mothers and children who participated in the IFPS II to characterize the health, development, and dietary patterns of the children at 6 years of age.

Questions addressed by the Infant Feeding Practices Study II:

  • Use of Consumer Products
    What types of formulas do infants consume and how?
    What are consumers' experiences with breast pumps?
    When and why do women express or pump milk?
  • Maternal Dietary Intake During Pregnancy and at Four Months Postpartum
    What are the dietary practices of pregnant women and lactating and non-lactating postpartum women?
    What dietary supplements do women take during pregnancy and lactation?
    How are these practices different from non-pregnant women?
  • Characteristics of Infant Feeding Patterns
    When and how are complementary foods introduced?
    How is breastfeeding practiced among U.S. infants?
    Do U.S. infants consume teas or herbal preparations?
    Are feeding patterns of infants with a family history of allergy different from infants without this family history?
  • Determinants and Benefits of Breastfeeding
    Do birth hospitals in the U.S. adhere to the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding?
    Where do mothers receive information regarding infant feeding?
    What are the reasons for women do not initiate breastfeeding or stop breastfeeding?
    Is breastfeeding intention related to a woman's perception of social support?
    Does maternity care practice affect exclusivity of breastfeeding?
    Does postnatal depression affect exclusivity of breastfeeding?
    Is workplace or child care breastfeeding support important for women to continue breastfeeding?
    Is the use of breast pumps related to breastfeeding duration?
    Do mothers who share a bed with their infants breastfeed longer?
    Are prepregnant weight and gestational weight gain related to breastfeeding patterns?
    Does breastfeeding reduce maternal weight retention following birth?
  • Recommendations and Evaluation
    How effective was the National Breastfeeding Awareness Campaign?
    Are the AAP recommendations for vitamin D supplementation for breastfeeding infants being followed?
    How have infant feeding practices changed from a decade ago?

Purpose and Content of Year Six Follow-Up (Y6FU) of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II)

The purpose of the Y6FU was to characterize the health, development, and dietary quality at 6 years of age for children who participated in IFPS II. In addition to these outcomes, information was collected on child care and school arrangements, cognitive stimulation at home, dental hygiene, physical activity of the child and the mother, screen time, sleep patterns, the eating environment, food allergy, consumption of herbal remedies, exposure to cigarette smoke and other inhaled contaminants, family medical history, maternal employment, health insurance coverage, and participation in government nutrition programs.

For additional information visit Infant Feeding Practices Study II and its Year Six Follow-Up.

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