Data and Statistics
Prevalence of Individual Adverse Childhood Experiences
Collected between 1995 and 1997, the prevalences (%) presented below are estimated from the entire ACE Study sample (n=17,337). Individual research papers that use only Wave 1 data or Wave 2 data will contain slightly but not significantly different prevalence estimates for individual ACE.
(N = 9,367)
(N = 7,970)
(N = 17,337)
|Number of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE Score)||Women||Men||Total|
|4 or more||15.2||9.2||12.5|
* Some ACE categories were defined using items adapted from other questionnaires. These were the Conflict Tactics Scalea (physical abuse, witnessing interparental violence, and emotional abuse), the Child Trauma Questionnaireb (emotional and physical neglect) and questions from Wyattc (sexual abuse).
a Straus MA, & Gelles RJ. Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press; 1990.
b Bernstein DP, Fink L, Handelsman L, Foote J, Lovejoy M, Wenzel K, Sapareto E, Ruggiero J. Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of vhild abuse and neglect. American Journal of Psychiatry 1994;151:1132–1136.
c Wyatt GE. The sexual abuse of Afro-American and White-American women in childhood. Child Abuse & Neglect 1985;9:507–519.
The following categories all occurred in the participant's first 18 years of life.
Often or very often a parent or other adult in the household swore at you, insulted you, or put you down and sometimes, often or very often acted in a way that made you think that you might be physically hurt.
An adult or person at least 5 years older ever touched or fondled you in a sexual way, or had you touch their body in a sexual way, or attempted oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with you or actually had oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with you.
Respondents were asked whether their family made them feel special, loved, and if their family was a source of strength, support, and protection. Emotional neglect was defined using scale scores that represent moderate to extreme exposure on the Emotional Neglect subscale of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) short form.
Respondents were asked whether there was enough to eat, if their parents drinking interfered with their care, if they ever wore dirty clothes, and if there was someone to take them to the doctor. Physical neglect was defined using scale scores that represent moderate to extreme exposure on the Physical Neglect subscale of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) short form constituted physical neglect.
1Collected during the second survey wave only (N=8,667).
Mother Treated Violently
Your mother or stepmother was sometimes, often, or very often pushed, grabbed, slapped, or had something thrown at her and/or sometimes often, or very often kicked, bitten, hit with a fist, or hit with something hard, or ever repeatedly hit over at least a few minutes or ever threatened or hurt by a knife or gun.