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Commentaries/Overview Methodological Issues
Chronic Disease Reproductive Health/Sexual Behavior
Health Risk Behaviors Special Populations
Mental Health Victimization and Perpetration

Other Health and Social Issues
 

Commentaries/Overview

Commentary

Anda RF, Brown DW. Root causes and organic budgeting: funding health from conception to the grave. Ped Health 2007;1(2):141–143.

Anda RF, Butchart A, Felitti VJ, Brown DW. Building a framework for global surveillance of the public health implications of adverse childhood experiences. AM J Prev Med. 2010 Jul;39(1):93-8.

Foege WH. Adverse childhood experiences: A public health perspective (editorial). American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1998;14:354–355.

Weiss JS, Wagner SH. What explains the negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences on adult health? Insights from cognitive and neuroscience research (editorial). American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998;14:356–360.

Whitfield CL. Adverse childhood experiences and trauma (editorial). American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998;14:361–363.

Edwards, VJ, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Anda RF. It's OK to ask about past abuse. American Psychologist 2007 62(4):327328.
 

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Overview

Edwards, VJ, Anda, RF, Dube, SR, Dong, M, Chapman, DF, Felitti, VJ. The wide-ranging health consequences of adverse childhood experiences. In Kathleen Kendall-Tackett and Sarah Giacomoni (eds.) Victimization of Children and Youth: Patterns of Abuse, Response Strategies, Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute; 2005.

Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks JS. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998;14:245–258.

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Chronic Disease

Autoimmune Disease

Dube SR, Fairweather D, Pearson WS, Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Croft JB. Cumulative childhood stress and autoimmune disease. Psychom Med 2009;71, 243–250.

Frequent Headaches

Anda R, Tietjen G, Schulman E, Felitti V, Croft J. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent headaches in adults. Headache. 2010 Oct;50(9):1473-81.

Health-Related Quality of Life

Edwards VJ, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Dube SR. Adverse childhood experiences and health-related quality of life as an adult. In: K Kendall-Tackett, ed. Health Consequences of Abuse in the Family: A Clinical Guide for Evidence-Based Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2003:81–94

Ischemic Heart Disease

Dong M, Giles WH, Felitti VJ, Dube, SR, Williams JE, Chapman DP, Anda RF. Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Circulation 2004;110:1761–1766.

Liver Disease

Dong M, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Giles WH. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Self- reported Liver Disease: New Insights into a Causal Pathway. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003;163:1949–1956.

Corso, PS, Edwards, VJ, Fang, X, Mercy, JA. Health-related quality of life among adults who experienced maltreatment during childhood. Am J Public Health 2008;98:1094–1100.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Anda RF, Brown DW, Dube SR, Bremner JD, Felitti VJ, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. Am J Prev Med 2008;34(5):396-403.

Lung Cancer

Brown DW, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Malarcher AM, Croft JB, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of lung cancer. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:20.

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Health Risk Behaviors

Alcohol Abuse

Dube SR, Miller JW, Brown DW, Giles WH, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Anda RF. Adverse childhood experiences and the association with ever using alcohol and initiating alcohol use during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006;38(4):444.e1-444.e10.

Anda RF, Whitfield CL, Felitti VJ, Chapman D, Edwards VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF. Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatric Services, 2002;53(8):1001–1009.

Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Croft JB. Adverse Childhood Experiences and personal alcohol abuse as an adult. Addictive Behaviors 2002;27(5):713–725.

Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Croft JB, Edwards VJ, Giles WH. Growing up with parental alcohol abuse: exposure to childhood abuse, neglect and household Dysfunction. Child Abuse and Neglect, 2001;25(12):1627–1640.

Drug Abuse

Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Chapman DP, Giles WH, Anda RF. Childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The Adverse Childhood Experience Study. Pediatrics 2003;111(3):564–572.

Obesity

Williamson DF, Thompson, TJ, Anda, RF,. Dietz, WH, Felitti VJ. Body weight, obesity, and self-reported abuse in childhood. International Journal of Obesity 2002;26:1075–1082.

Sexual Risk Behavior

Hillis SD, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA. Adverse childhood experiences and sexual risk behaviors in women: a retrospective cohort study. Family Planning Perspectives 2001;33:206–211.

Smoking

Ford ES, Anda RF, Edwards VJ, Perry GS, Zhao G, Tsai J, Li C, Croft JB. Adverse childhood experiences and smoking status in five states. Prev Med 2011;53: 188-93.

Edwards VJ, Anda RF, Gu D Dube, S R, Felitti VJ. Adverse childhood experiences and smoking persistence in adults with smoking-related symptoms and illness. Permanente Journal 2007;11:57.

Anda RF, Croft JB, Felitti VJ, Nordenberg D, Giles WH, Williamson DF, Giovino GA. Adverse childhood experiences and smoking during adolescence and adulthood. Journal of the American Medical Association 999;282:1652–1658.

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Mental Health

Autobiographical Memory Disturbances

Brown DW, Anda RF, Felitti VJ. Self-reported information and pharmacy claims were comparable for lipid-lowering medication exposure. J Clin Epidemiol 2007;60(5):525529.

Edwards VJ, Fivush R, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Nordenberg DF. Autobiographical memory disturbances in childhood abuse survivors. In: J.J. Freyd and A.P. DePrince (Eds.) Trauma and Cognitive Science: A Meeting of Minds, Science, and Human Experience. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press; 2001.

Depression/Depressed Affect

Anda RF, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Bremner JD, Dube SR, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in adults. Am J Prev Med 2007;32(5):38994.

Chapman DP, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Edwards VJ, Whitfield CL. Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders 2004;82:217–225.

Edwards VJ, Holden GW, Anda RF, Felitti VJ. Experiencing multiple forms of childhood maltreatment and adult mental health: results from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Psychiatry 2003;160(8):1453–1460.

Anda RF, Whitfield CL, Felitti VJ, Chapman D, Edwards VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF. Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatric Services 2002;53(8):1001–1009.

Edwards, VJ, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Anda RF. It's OK to ask about past abuse. American Psychologist 2007;62(4):327328.

Hallucinations

Whitfield CL, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Anda RF. Adverse childhood experiences and hallucinations. Child Abuse and Neglect 2005;29(7):797–810.

Neurobiology

Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Walker J, Whitfield, CL, Bremner JD, Perry BD, Dube SR, Giles WH. The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood: a convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2006; 56(3):17486.

Suicidality

Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Chapman D, Williamson DF, Giles WH. Childhood abuse, household dysfunction and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: Findings from Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. JAMA 2001;286:3089–3096.

Work Absenteeism

Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Fleisher VI, Edwards VJ, Whitfield CL, Dube SR, Williamson DF. Childhood abuse, household dysfunction and indicators of impaired worker performance in adulthood. The Permanente Journal 2004;8(1):30–38.

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Methodological Issues

Age Cohort Differences

Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Giles WH, Anda RF. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(3):268–277.

Assessment of Mediating Pathways

Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Fleisher VI, Edwards VJ, Whitfield CL, Dube SR, Williamson DF. Childhood abuse, household dysfunction and indicators of impaired worker performance in adulthood. The Permanente Journal 2004;8(1):30–38.

Dong M, Giles WH, Felitti VJ, Dube, SR, Williams JE, Chapman DP, Anda RF. Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Circulation 2004;110:1761–1766.

Anda RF, Chapman DP, Felitti VJ, Edwards V, Williamson DF, Croft JP, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;100(1): 37–45.

Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Chapman D, Williamson DF, Giles WH. Childhood abuse, household dysfunction and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: findings from Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. JAMA 2001;286:3089–3096.

Basis For ACE Score

Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti, VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF, Thompson TJ, Loo CM. Giles WH. The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse and Neglect 2004;28(7):771–784.

Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks JS. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. Am J Prev Med 1998;14:245–258.

Bias Assessment

Brown DW, Anda RF, Felitti VJ. Self-reported information and pharmacy claims were comparable for lipid-lowering medication exposure. J Clin Epidemiol 2007;60(5):525529.

Dube SR, Williamson DF, Thompson T, Felitti VJ, Anda RF. Assessing the reliability of retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences among adult HMO members attending a primary care clinic. Child Abuse and Neglect 2004;28(7):729–737.

Edwards VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg DF, Felitti VJ, Williamson DF, Howard N, Wright JA. Bias assessment for child abuse survey: factors affecting probability of response to a survey about child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect 2001;25:307–312.

Consistency by Birth Cohort

Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Giles WH, Anda RF. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(3):268–277.

Interrelation of ACEs

Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti, VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF, Thompson TJ, Loo CM. Giles WH. . The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse and Neglect 2004;28(7):771–784.

Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Giles WH. The relationship of exposure to childhood sexual abuse to other forms of abuse, neglect and household dysfunction during childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect 2003;27(6):625–639.

Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Williamson DF. Exposure to abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children:implications for health and social services. Violence and Victims 2002;17(1):3–17.

Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Croft JB, Edwards VJ, Giles WH. Growing up with parental alcohol abuse: exposure to childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. Child Abuse and Neglect 2001;25(12):1627–1640.

Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks JS. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998;14:245–258.

Severity and Frequency of Violent Experience

Whitfield CL, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ. Violent childhood experiences and the risk of intimate partner violence in adults: assessment in a large health maintenance organization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2003;18(2):166–185.

Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Chapman DP, Croft JB, et al. Abused boys, battered mothers, and male involvement in teen pregnancy. Pediatrics 2001;107(2):e19.

Test-Retest Reliability

Dube SR, Williamson DF, Thompson T, Felitti VJ, Anda RF. Assessing the reliability of retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences among adult HMO members attending a primary care clinic. Child Abuse and Neglect 2004:28(7):729–737.

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Reproductive Health/Sexual Behavior

Fetal Death

Hillis SD, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA, Marks JS. The association between adverse childhood experiences and adolescent pregnancy, long-term psychosocial outcomes, and fetal death. Pediatrics 2004; 113(2):320–327.

Hillis SD, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA, Marks JS. The association between adolescent pregnancy, long-term psychosocial outcomes, and fetal death. Pediatrics 004;113(2):320–327.

Promiscuity

Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks JS. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998;14:245–258.

Sexual Risk Behaviors in Women

Hillis SD, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA. Adverse childhood experiences and sexual risk behaviors in women: a retrospective cohort study. Family Planning Perspectives 2001;33:206–211.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Hillis SD, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Nordenberg D, Marchbanks PA. Adverse childhood experiences and sexually transmitted diseases in men and women: a retrospective study. Pediatrics 2000;106(1):E11.

Teen Pregnancy

Hillis SD, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA, Macaluso M, Marks JS. (2010). The Protective Effect of Family Strengths in Childhood against Adolescent Pregnancy and Its Long-Term Psychosocial Consequences. Permanente Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 18-27.

Hillis SD, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA, Marks JS. The association between adverse childhood experiences and adolescent pregnancy, long-term psychosocial outcomes, and fetal death. Pediatrics 2004; 113(2):320–327.

Anda RF, Chapman DP, Felitti VJ, Edwards V, Williamson DF, Croft JP, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;100(1):37–45.

Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Chapman DP, Croft JB, et al. Abused boys, battered mothers, and male involvement in teen pregnancy. Pediatrics 2001;107(2):e19.

Unintended Pregnancy

Dietz PM, Spitz AM, Anda RF, Williamson DF, McMahon PM, Santelli JS, Nordenberg DF, Felitti VJ, Kendrick JS. Unintended pregnancy among adult women exposed to abuse or household dysfunction during their childhood. JAMA 1999;282:1359–1364.

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Special Populations

Children of Alcoholics

Anda RF, Whitfield CL, Felitti VJ, Chapman D, Edwards VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF. Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatric Services 2002;53(8):1001–1009.

Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Croft JB, Edwards VJ, Giles WH. Growing up with parental alcohol abuse: exposure to childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. Child Abuse and Neglect 2001:25(12):1627–1640.

Child Sexual Abuse Victims

Dube SR, Anda RF, Whitfield, CL, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Giles WH. Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim . Am J Prev Med 2005;28:430–438.

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Victimization and Perpetration

Intimate Partner Violence

Whitfield CL, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ. Violent Childhood Experiences and the risk of intimate partner violence in adults: assessment in a large health maintenance organization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2003;18(2):166–185.

Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Williamson DF. Exposure to abuse, neglect and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children. Violence and Victims 2002:17(1):3–17.

Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Brown DW, Chapman D, Dong M, Dube SR, Edwards VJ, Giles WH. (2006) Insights into intimate partner violence from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. In:PR Salber and E Taliaferro, eds. The Physician's Guide to Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse, Volcano, CA: Volcano Press; 2006.

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Other Health and Social Issues

Anda RF, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients. BMC Public Health 2008;4;8:198.

Anda RF, Dong M, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Giles WH, Perry GS, Edwards VJ, Dube SR. The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to a history of premature death of family members. BMC Public Health 2009;9:106.

Anda RF, Brown DW, Dube SR, Bremner JD, Felitti VJ, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. Am J Prev Med 2008;34(5):396–403.

CDC. Adverse childhood experiences reported by adults—five states, 2009. MMWR 2010;59(49): 1609-1613.

Chapman DP, Wheaton AG, Anda RF, Croft JB, Edwards VJ, Liu Y, Sturgis SL, Perry GS. Adverse childhood experiences and sleep disturbances in adults. Sleep med 2011;12: 773-79.

Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Williamson DF, Dube SR, Brown DW, Giles WH. Childhood residential mobility and multiple health risks during adolescence and adulthood: the hidden role of adverse childhood experiences. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2005;159:1104–1110.

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