About the StudyThe initial phase of the ACE Study was conducted at Kaiser Permanente from 1995 to 1997, and more than 17,000 participants had a standardized physical examination. No further participants will be enrolled, but we are tracking the medical status of the baseline participants.
Each study participant completed a confidential survey that contained questions about childhood maltreatment and family dysfunction, as well as items detailing their current health status and behaviors. This information was combined with the results of their physical examination to form the baseline data for the study.
The prospective phase of the ACE Study is currently underway, and will assess the relationship between adverse childhood experiences, health care use, and causes of death.
International interest in replications of the ACE Study is growing. At present we are aware of efforts to replicate the ACE Study or use its questionnaire in Canada, China, Jordan, Norway, the Philippines and the United Kingdom. In Puerto Rico, the link between women’s cardiovascular health risks and ACEs has been examined. The World Health Organization has included the ACE Study questionnaires as an addendum to the document Preventing Child Maltreatment: A Guide to Taking Action and Generating Evidence. (October 2006 [PDF - 2.44MB]) Additionally, efforts are underway in many municipalities and treatment communities to apply ACE Study findings to improve the health of adult survivors. Notable efforts are included in the “Related links.” In 2010, five states collected ACE information on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS).
More detailed scientific information about the study design can be found in “The Relationship of Adult Health Status to Childhood Abuse and Household Dysfunction,” published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine in 1998, Volume 14, pages 245–258.