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Methodology - Objectives

Overall Objectives

  • To determine the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, group A Streptococcus, group B Streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in multiple large diverse U.S. populations
  • To determine molecular epidemiologic patterns and microbiologic characteristics of public health relevance for isolates causing the above invasive infections
  • To provide an infrastructure for further research, such as special studies aimed at identifying risk factors for disease, post-licensure evaluation

Pathogen-Specific Objectives

Group A Streptococcus (GAS)

  • To determine the distribution of emm types and the association between specific emm types and disease severity in order to guide vaccine development
  • To track antimicrobial resistance among invasive GAS isolates
  • To identify potentially modifiable risk factors for community-acquired GAS infections and to identify potentially preventable GAS infections such as nosocomial (postpartum and post-surgical) infections or invasive infections in closed facilities (e.g., nursing homes)

Group B Streptococcus (GBS)

  • To assess the impact and implementation of current perinatal GBS disease prevention guidelines and update the guidelines as warranted based on accumulated evidence from ABCs and other sources
  • To monitor the impact of intrapartum prophylaxis on GBS resistance and non-GBS neonatal sepsis
  • To characterize trends in invasive GBS disease epidemiology in other age groups, particularly late-onset neonatal disease and adult disease
  • To identify serotypes responsible for disease in order to guide vaccine development

Haemophilus influenzae

  • To evaluate progress in the elimination of serotype b disease
  • To detect possible emergence of disease due to other capsular types
  • To determine appropriate verification and validation criteria for current and potential serotyping methods

Neisseria meningitidis

  • To evaluate effectiveness of meningococcal conjugate vaccines and impact on disease burden
  • To evaluate the impact of meningococcal conjugate vaccines including changes in molecular epidemiology
  • To evaluate trends in molecular subtypes and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance
  • To determine appropriate verification and validation criteria for current and potential serogrouping methods

Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • To track emerging antimicrobial resistance in pneumococcal isolates
  • To evaluate the impact of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on disease burden and on antimicrobial resistance among children
  • To evaluate the impact of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, as well as the existing polysaccharide vaccine, on disease burden and on antimicrobial resistance among adults

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

  • To evaluate changes in rates of hospital-onset (HO), healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO), and community-associated (CA) invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) disease over time and across different geographic areas
  • To identify populations at risk for invasive MRSA disease
  • To describe the molecular and microbiologic characteristics of hospital-onset, healthcare-associated community-onset and community-associated MRSA

Legionella

  • To describe the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of legionellosis in geographically diverse populations in the United States

Bordetella pertussis

  • To determine the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of B. pertussis
  • To characterize the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains of B. pertussis
  • To determine epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of other Bordetella species (B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica, and B. holmesii)
  • To monitor the impact of pertussis vaccines
  • To provide an infrastructure for additional special studies including those aimed at evaluating B. pertussis prevention and control strategies

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Related Pages

  • Pathogen-related pages Fact sheets, laboratory characterization, surveillance areas, publications, surveillance reports, and more

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