HECAT: Frequently Asked Questions
- Can the HECAT be used to determine the most appropriate grade to address specific concepts or skill instruction?
- Will the HECAT enable us to identify an effective health education curriculum? Our state (or district) mandates that we use research-based, effective health education curricula.
- Can we use the HECAT to develop our health education framework or scope-and-sequence?
- Can we use the HECAT to analyze and select health education textbooks?
- Why does the HECAT include both individual health topic modules and a comprehensive health education module?
- Is it necessary to complete the entire HECAT for each curriculum that is reviewed?
- Should the HECAT be completed by an individual?
- Can a single person complete specific parts of the HECAT (e.g., Chapter 2, General Curriculum Information)?
- Should the curriculum review committee be limited to school staff (e.g., school teachers, administrators, board members)?
- Does everyone on our curriculum review team have to complete all sections of the HECAT for every curriculum being reviewed and considered?
- What should we do if the curriculum review team members do not feel qualified or competent in completing some of the HECAT (e.g., the Accuracy Analysis)?
- Should curriculum developers be included as members of the curriculum review committee?
- The HECAT appears extensive. How much time is required to complete a review using the HECAT?
- We are not sure we have all the expertise in health education to confidently plan our curriculum review. Where can we get help in planning a health education curriculum review or in using the HECAT?
- Can we make changes to the HECAT to address our own priorities, needs, and interests? Can we make the HECAT shorter? The coverage of the health topics in the modules (Chapter 6) of the HECAT is thorough. But, some modules include analysis of content that is inconsistent with our community's values and does not include analysis of content specific to our community priorities and local curriculum requirements.
- What if the HECAT doesn’t match the topics in my curriculum (e.g., consumer health)?
- Can the HECAT be revised once the curriculum review process begins?
The purpose of the HECAT is to provide state, regional and local education agencies with a common set of tools to assist with the selection or development of health education curricula. The HECAT contains guidance, analysis tools, scoring rubrics, and resources for carrying out a clear, complete, and consistent examination of health education curricula. The HECAT results can help schools select or develop appropriate and effective health education curricula, strengthen the delivery of health education, and improve the ability of health educators to influence healthy behaviors and healthy outcomes among school-age youth. The HECAT is customizable to meet local community needs and conform to the curriculum requirements of a state or school district. HECAT modules address the following curricula:
- Alcohol and Other Drugs
- Healthy Eating
- Mental and Emotional Health
- Personal Health and Wellness
- Physical Activity
- Sexual Health
- Violence Prevention
- Comprehensive Health Education
The HECAT is designed to be used by state, regional and local education agency staff and others responsible for selecting, supervising, developing or using health education curricula in schools. For example,
- Curriculum committees or educators at school districts, schools, or community-based organizations that work with schools can use the HECAT, in conjunction with the state standards and health education frameworks or other locally determined requirements, to
- Develop new or improved courses of study, frameworks, learning objectives, or curricula
- Guide the selection of curricula available for purchase
- Examine curricula currently in use
- State or regional educational agency staff can use the HECAT to inform the development or review of
- State health education standards or frameworks
- Recommendations for conducting state or local curriculum review
- State-recommended health education curricula
- Developers of nationally disseminated and packaged curricula, such as nongovernmental organizations and for-profit curriculum development companies, can use the HECAT to design health education curricula that best meet the needs of schools and the young people they serve.
- Institutions of higher education teacher preparation programs can use the HECAT to improve their students' understanding of health education, curriculum analysis, and development of instructional skills.
The HECAT includes all the needed guidance and appraisal tools for carrying out a thorough and systematic assessment of a health education curriculum. Information, materials, processes and tools are included in the chapters, appendices, and glossary. The HECAT includes
- Essential background information and instructions for using the HECAT to review and improve locally developed curricula
- Templates to record important descriptive information about a curriculum for use in the curriculum review process
- Preliminary curriculum considerations, such as accuracy, acceptability, feasibility, and affordability analyses
- Curriculum fundamentals, such as teacher materials, instructional design, and instructional strategies and materials
- Customizable templates for state or local use
- Specific health-topic concept and skills analyses
No. The HECAT is not required as a condition for receiving funding from CDC or any other federal agency. CDC developed the HECAT to help improve health education curriculum selection and development. Its use is entirely voluntary.
No. To determine reliability of HECAT analysis and analysis processes and items and inform improvements, CDC conducted pilot reviews of a limited number of commercial curricula. No curriculum names were documented and scores were not retained after improvements were incorporated into the HECAT. CDC does not conduct systematic reviews of curricula using the HECAT; does not retain or disseminate HECAT curriculum scores from others who have used the HECAT; and does not endorse HECAT-based curriculum analysis scores distributed by other organizations or companies.
To use the HECAT, follow these steps:
- Print a copy of HECAT from the HECAT home page.
- Read the entire HECAT to become familiar with its contents and how it can meet your curriculum analysis, development, or selection needs.
- Review the Overview [pdf 382K] and Chapter 1, General Instructions [pdf 206K]. Chapter 1 will provide you with essential background information and instructions for conducting a health education curriculum review.
- Read all remaining chapters, follow the steps from Chapter 1 to review the curriculum, and complete the forms to finalize the HECAT.
Benefits of Using the HECAT
Using the HECAT can
- Help ensure a complete, thorough, and consistent review of a health education curriculum
- Help clarify what should be included in a health education curriculum
- Help ensure that the curriculum is aligned with research-based practices, the National Health Education Standards, and CDC’s Characteristics of an Effective Health Education Curriculum
- Help identify instructional strategies that improve teaching and student learning
- Inform your selection of a high-quality curriculum that is affordable and feasible to implement in your schools
- Provide sound and defensible justification for curriculum decisions to parents, school board members, and others interested in health education in your community or state
The HECAT can help ensure that your current health education curriculum selection or development process is systematic, consistent, and thorough and reflects current research and practice, which will strengthen your own curriculum selection or development processes.
Using the HECAT
Can the HECAT be used to determine the most appropriate grade to address specific concepts or skill instruction?
No. The HECAT provides knowledge and skill expectations deemed appropriate for grade groups (pre-K–2; 3–5; 6–8; 9–12). It does not identify the individual grade at which these might be most appropriate.
State boards of education, local school boards, school district administrators, or curriculum coordinators determine curriculum priorities, and curriculum requirements for all relevant health education topics, including the grades at which specific concepts and skills should be addressed. The HECAT can inform priorities and decisions about grade-level requirements. However, the HECAT is most useful in determining which commercially packaged curriculum best aligns with established requirements or what should be included in a locally developed curriculum to better meet these requirements. You can rearrange the HECAT knowledge and skill expectations if their current placement does not match your local requirements.
Will the HECAT enable us to identify an effective health education curriculum? Our state (or district) mandates that we use research-based, effective health education curricula.
No. The HECAT does not assess research findings related to a particular curriculum’s effectiveness. Instead, it measures the extent to which a curriculum incorporates effective practices. The HECAT is based on CDC’s Characteristics of Effective Health Education Curricula and National Health Education Standards. However, the HECAT does include questions that ask whether or not the curriculum under review is included on federal lists that identify research-based, effective curricula.
Various federal agencies have identified youth-related programs considered to be worthy of recommendation based on a review of research evidence (see Registries of Programs Effective in Reducing Youth Risk Behavior) . Identification by these agencies should augment, not replace, your use of the HECAT to determine the best health education curriculum for your school and community.
Yes. However, you should go through your own thorough process to develop your health education framework and scope-and-sequence that reflect the needs of your students and the interests and priorities of others in your school community.
The HECAT provides valuable information to assist you in the scope-and-sequence or framework development process. The HECAT articulates the National Health Education Standards, identifies the expected outcomes (Healthy Behavioral Outcomes) of a topic-specific or comprehensive health education curriculum, and identifies the essential knowledge and skill expectations that are directly related to each topic by grade group. This information can help expedite the development of a health education scope-and-sequence or health education framework.
More information about using the HECAT to design a scope-and-sequence for health education can be found in Appendix 4 [pdf 607K].
A textbook is not typically considered a complete health education curriculum. The HECAT is designed to analyze an entire curriculum, including all the resources, such as textbooks that will be used with the curriculum. We do not recommend that you use the HECAT to analyze a single resource, such as a textbook, independent of the curriculum in which it will be used, because it will require a more extensive review than would normally be necessary for such a single resource.
We recognize that schools and school districts might use a separate review process to select a textbook that will become part of an existing health education curriculum. The HECAT can help you consider what to include in a separate textbook review process. Guidance for considering how the HECAT can be useful in the review of health education resource materials, such as textbooks, is provided in Appendix 2 [pdf 328K].
Why does the HECAT include both individual health topic modules and a comprehensive health education module?
The HECAT is designed to support analysis of many health education curricula, some that focus on health outcomes related to a single topic (e.g., violence prevention) and some that address a comprehensive set of health outcomes across multiple health topics. You can choose the module(s) that best matches your needs and the focus of the curriculum under review:
- If a curriculum clearly focuses on a single topic, such as violence prevention, use the module that addresses that topic.
- If a curriculum focuses on outcomes related to only two or three topics and it is clear that the curriculum is intentionally limited only to those topics (e.g., only nutrition and physical activity; or only mental and emotional health, sexual health, and violence prevention), use the two or three topic-specific modules that address these topics.
- If a curriculum addresses numerous health problems, issues, or topics, focuses on more than one grade level, and includes a wide range of learning activities to address multiple health outcomes, use the comprehensive health education curriculum module.
The comprehensive health education module includes the concepts and skill examples that are found in each of the health topic modules. The comprehensive module also enables you to analyze concepts and skills across topic areas and allows you to score concepts and skill learning as an integrated whole rather than merely a collection of individual topics.
It is not necessary, but all categories and items can be useful for selecting or developing a curriculum. You can determine which items in the HECAT are useful and important to include in your curriculum analysis and in the selection or development process.
You also have the choice of determining how you want to use the HECAT items in your review process. For example, some curriculum review teams have used Chapter 2, General Curriculum Information [pdf 118K] to collect general descriptive information about the curriculum, developer and the year of development, topic areas, and grade levels; Chapter 4, Preliminary Curriculum Considerations [pdf 368K], to determine curriculum accuracy, acceptability, feasibility, and affordability; and Chapter 5, Curriculum Fundamentals [pdf 224K], to appraise the learning objectives, teacher materials, curriculum design, instructional strategies and materials, promotion of norms that value positive health behaviors, and promotion of skills that reinforce positive health behaviors of a health education curriculum, to make initial decisions and shorten the list of curricula to be seriously considered. The remainder of the HECAT (i.e., Chapter 6 Overview of Modules [pdf 99K] to appraise specific health-topic curricula) is then used to review the curricula under serious consideration.
Conducting a HECAT Curriculum Review
No. The review of curricula using the HECAT should be conducted by a team — an individual should not do it alone. A HECAT committee, working together, should complete the HECAT.
Can a single person complete specific parts of the HECAT (e.g., Chapter 2, General Curriculum Information)?
Yes. Some chapters and sections of the HECAT can be completed by one person, who then provides information to other review committee members. For example, Chapter 2, General Curriculum Information [pdf 118K], captures general descriptive information needed to understand and review any health education curriculum and to make a final curriculum selection. One person who is very familiar with the curriculum, usually the curriculum coordinator, can complete the General Curriculum Information and provide the results to other review committee team members.
It is not advisable, however, to assign one person to review sections that would benefit from multiple perspectives and expertise. For example, acceptability of a curriculum typically varies within a community. It is critical that multiple reviewers complete the Acceptability Analysis together to ensure that the Acceptability Score reflects community perspectives, rather than only one individual’s point of view.
Should the curriculum review committee be limited to school staff (e.g., school teachers, administrators, board members)?
No. The curriculum review team also should include parents and other people from the community at-large. A suggested list of review committee members is provided in Chapter 1. All review team members should be stakeholders with an investment in the health and education needs and interests of the students in your school district or school.
Does everyone on our curriculum review team have to complete all sections of the HECAT for every curriculum being reviewed and considered?
No. But it is important that the most knowledgeable person(s) complete each section of the HECAT. The curriculum review team must have a broad range of expertise, and each of the team members should review only the HECAT components for which he or she is most qualified. For example, parents are invaluable in completing the Acceptability Analysis and, perhaps, less able to review the Skill Application. Chapter 1 of the HECAT [pdf 206K] provides a list of the persons who might be appropriate to serve on the curriculum review team and who have the expertise needed to complete some or all of the HECAT.
Even though it is not necessary for all curriculum review committee members to complete all sections of the HECAT, all members should receive the results of the entire HECAT analysis prior to making curriculum recommendations. Chapter 1 provides guidance for using the HECAT results to make curriculum recommendations.
What should we do if the curriculum review team members do not feel qualified or competent in completing some of the HECAT (e.g., the Accuracy Analysis)?
It is important to select review committee members who have the necessary expertise to complete the HECAT. Chapter 1 provides a list of persons who should be considered on your review committee for completing specific parts of the HECAT. For the Accuracy Analysis, for example, you should use persons who have research expertise (e.g., a university researcher), scientific expertise in the content area under review (e.g., a dietician for the topic “healthy eating”), and expertise in instructional delivery (e.g., a certified health educator or curriculum director). You should identify these experts prior to beginning the curriculum review. If desired, you can limit their assignments to cover only the parts of the HECAT for which they have expertise.
No. It is often helpful to talk with the curriculum developers in order to thoroughly complete Chapter 2, General Curriculum Information. You might also want to invite them to showcase their curricular materials (e.g., scope and sequence, charts showing alignment with the National Health Education Standards) before you begin your review. However, curriculum developers should not be included in the analysis or scoring process, nor should they be allowed to unduly influence review committee members’ analyses. Most developers of commercially packaged curricula have a primary interest in marketing their products.
Pilot curriculum reviews using the HECAT have taken from 4 to 16 hours per curriculum. The time required for a curriculum review will depend on several factors:
- The HECAT items you decide to use for the review of curricula.
- Each reviewer’s understanding of health education and relevant health topics.
- Each reviewer’s familiarity with the HECAT.
- Each reviewer’s familiarity with the curriculum being reviewed.
- The breadth and scope of the curriculum under review. For example, a multi-grade curriculum will require more time than a single-grade curriculum and a comprehensive curriculum will require more time than a single-topic curriculum.
- The amount of curricular material. For example, more time will be required for a curriculum that includes multiple parts, such as videos, workbooks, and separate guides for teachers, than will a single-package curriculum with no extra materials.
- The orderliness of a curriculum. For example, more time will be required for a curriculum that is disorganized, fragmented, or incomplete than one that is well organized.
- The extent to which curriculum materials are easily available for all reviewers. For example, the process will take longer if the reviewers have to share the curriculum materials than if they each have their own complete package of materials.
The HECAT requires sufficient time to prepare for and complete the analysis. Typically, a curriculum review will not be completed in one session. Separate sessions might be necessary to prepare the review committee to use the HECAT, determine local performance benchmarks, shorten the list of curricula that might be acceptable for complete analysis, and conduct the complete analysis on the remaining curricula.
You should also allow time for the curriculum review committee to review curriculum analysis scores and reach a consensus on curriculum recommendations. Chapter 1 of the HECAT provides guidance for coordinating and organizing your curriculum review and helps you determine the time you need to complete your curriculum review and selection process.
We are not sure we have all the expertise in health education to confidently plan our curriculum review. Where can we get help in planning a health education curriculum review or in using the HECAT?
There are many possible resources available to assist you with your health education and curriculum planning. First, contact the school health education consultant or coordinated school health program director in your state education or state health agency. Although the state consultant or director might not be able to assist you directly, he or she can refer or link you to state resource centers and other experts, including—
- Instructional staff from local or state university health education teacher preparation programs
- State-based professional health education organizations
- Knowledgeable health educators employed in other school districts
- Reputable consultants with expertise in health education curricula
Many school health educators are members of national professional associations that represent school health educators, including the following:
The national officers in these organizations can help answer questions and link you to knowledgeable members who might be available to provide more direct assistance.
You can direct your questions regarding health education or HECAT to CDC's Division of Adolescent and School Health at the following e-mail address: Contact CDC-INFO or phone 1-800-CDC-INFO. CDC/DASH grantees can contact their Project Officer to discuss how to best use the HECAT.
CDC provides support for HECAT Workshops. This support is limited and provided on a case-by-case basis. For more information, see Training Tools for Healthy Schools.
Revising the HECAT
Can we make changes to the HECAT to address our own priorities, needs, and interests? Can we make the HECAT shorter? The coverage of the health topics in the modules (Chapter 6) of the HECAT is thorough. But, some modules include analysis of content that is inconsistent with our community's values and does not include analysis of content specific to our community priorities and local curriculum requirements.
Yes. CDC recognizes that school curricula are typically selected at the local level and must meet local school and community needs and conform to state or school district curriculum requirements. You are encouraged to review the HECAT items before analyzing curricula and, if necessary, add, delete, or revise items to meet local needs and curriculum requirements. You can also shorten the HECAT. Ultimately, its length and content should reflect what you want to analyze.
In making revisions, you should remember that the items included in the HECAT were developed through a rigorous process guided by research evidence and expert opinion on the types of information and learning experiences that help young people adopt and maintain health-enhancing behaviors. Revisions that significantly change the content or length of the HECAT could diminish the value the HECAT brings to your curriculum analysis, selection, or development process.
The topics used in the HECAT reflect the health issues that CDC considers to be important for children and adolescents. These topics may not match those used by other organizations or curriculum developers or the terminology used in your state, school district, or school. You should review the HECAT to find health topic modules that most complement your curriculum requirements and terminology. You can change the terminology and content of the modules to best meet your needs. If you do not find a match within a single module, it might be necessary to select items from multiple modules and design a new HECAT topic module to meet your needs.
Yes, but this will be more burdensome when analyzing multiple curricula. You can revise the tool as needed when reviewing a single curriculum. When using the HECAT for the review of multiple curricula, it will be important to analyze them all consistently to ensure fair comparisons. This requires that you use the same scoring and comparison criteria for all curricula. We recommend that you determine the items to be included in your analysis before you start the review process and, when reviewing multiple curricula, use the same items for the review of all curricula. If you make changes to the HECAT during the curriculum review process, you should re-review any curricula that were analyzed and scored prior to these changes.
Beyond the HECAT
There is more to health education than just curriculum materials. Are there CDC resources to help analyze other aspects of health education?
The HECAT was developed in response to requests from state education agencies and local school districts for a tool that would help them select or develop appropriate health education curriculum materials. The HECAT is limited to this specific purpose. CDC recognizes that high-quality health education also includes—
- A documented, planned, and sequential program of health instruction for students from kindergarten through grade 12
- Adequate time devoted for health instruction
- Appropriately certified health education teachers and professional development to improve delivery of health education
- Health education classroom management
- Administrative, parent, and community support for school health education
The School Health Index (SHI) is a school-level self-assessment and planning guide that addresses many of these aspects. The SHI will enable you to
- Identify the strengths and weaknesses of your school’s policies and programs for promoting health and safety, including school health education
- Develop an action plan for improving overall health education
- Involve faculty, staff, parents, students, and the community in improving school policies, programs, and services