One of the major functions of the CDC Vision Health Initiative is to describe the burden of vision loss and eye diseases in the United States and to provide that information in a published formats for publications such as the Mortality and Morbidity Weekly (MMWR) and peer-reviewed journals.
This section lists publications written by CDC/VHI staff, and key articles or reports from other authors. Electronic links are provided when possible.
- Saydah SH, Gerzoff RB, Saaddine J, Zhang X, Cotch MF. Eye Care Among US Adults at High Risk for Vision Loss: United States 2002 and 2017. JAMA Ophthalmology. 2020; 138(5):1-12. Summary | Abstractexternal icon
- Zhang XP, Beckles GL, Bullard KM, Gregg EW, Albright AL, Barker L, Zhang X, Ruiz-Holguín R, Cerqueira MT, Frontini M, Imperatore G. Access to health care and undiagnosed diabetes along the United States-Mexico border. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2010;28(3):182–9.
- Zhang X, Andersen R, Saaddine JB, Beckles GL, Duenas MR, Lee PP. Measuring access to eye care: a public health perspective. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2008;15(6):418–425. Abstractexternal icon
- Zhang X, Lee PP, Thompson TJ, et al. Health insurance coverage and use of eye care services. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(8):1121–1126.
- Zhang X, Saaddine JB, Lee PP, et al. Eye care in the United States: do we deliver to high-risk people who can benefit most from it? Arch.Ophthalmol 2007;125(3):411–418. Abstractexternal icon
- Chou CF, Cotch MF, Vitale S, Zhang X, Klein R, Friedman DS, Klein BE, Saaddine, JB. Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment Among U.S. Adults. Am J Prev Med 2013 Jul;45(1):29–35
- Zhang X, Elliott MN, Saaddine JB, Berry JG, Cuccaro P, Tortolero S, Franklin F, Barker LE, Schuster MA. Unmet eye care needs among U.S. 5th-grade students. Am J Prev Med 2012 Jul;43(1):55–8.
- Kemper AR, Wallace DK, Zhang X, Patel N, Crews JE. (2012). Uncorrected distance visual impairment among adolescents in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health June 2012;50(6);645–647.
- Luo H, Beckles GLA, Fang X, Crews JE, Saaddine JB, Zhang X. Socioeconomic Status and Lifetime Risk for Workplace Eye Injury Reported by a US Population Aged 50 Years and Over. Ophthalmic Epidemiology Apr 2012;19(2):103–110.
- Kemper AR, Wallace DK, Pate, N. Crews JE. Preschool vision testing by health providers in the United States: Findings from the 2006-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Original Research Article. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 2011 October;15(5), 480–483.
- Kemper AR, Helfrich A, Talbot J, Patel N, Crews JE. Improving the rate of preschool vision screening: an interrupted time-series analysis. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov;128(5):e1279–84. Epub 2011 Oct 10.
- Fan AZ, Li Y, Zhang X, Klein R, Mokdad AH, Saaddine JB, Balluz L. Alcohol consumption, drinking pattern, and self-reported visual impairment. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2012 Feb;19(1):8–15.
- Li, Y., Crews, J. E., Elam-Evans, L., Fan, A. Z., Zhang, X., Elliott, A. F., & Balluz, L. (2010). Visual impairment and health-related quality of life among elderly adults with age-related eye diseases. Published online: 30 December, 2010.
- Zhang X, Kahende J, Fan AZ, Barker L, Thompson TJ, Mokdad AH, Li Y, Saaddine JB. Smoking and visual impairment among older adults with age-related eye diseases. Prev Chronic Dis 2011;8(4):A84.
- Klein R, Chou CF, Klein B, Zhang X, Meuer SM, Saaddine JB. Prevalence of Age-related Macular Degeneration in the United States Population. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 Jan:129(1):75–80.
- Terry AL, Paulose-Ram R, Tilert TJ, Johnson CA, Zhang X, Lee P, Saaddine JB. The methodology of visual field testing with frequency doubling technology in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Dec; 17(6):411–21.
- Cheng Y, Gregg EW, Geiss LS, Imperatore G, Williams DE, Zhang X, Albright A, Cowie CC, Klein R, Saaddine JB. Association of A1C and Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels With Diabetic Retinopathy Prevalence in the U.S. Population: Implications for diabetes diagnostic thresholds. Diabetes Care 32:2027–2032, 2009
- Li Y, Liao Y, Fan A, Zhang X, Balluz L. Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Paradox in Diabetic Retinopathy: Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-2008. Ethn Dis. 2010 Spring;20(2):111–117.
- Zhang X, Luo H, Gregg EW, Barker L, Mukhtar Q, Rivera M, Albright A. Obesity Prevention and Diabetes Screening at Local Health Departments. Am J Public Health. 2010;100:1434–1441.
- Zhang X, Saaddine J, Chou CF, Cotch MF, Cheng YJ, Geiss LS, Gregg EW, Albright AL, Klein BE, Klein R. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008. JAMA. 2010;304(6):649–656.
- Zhang X, Williams DE, Beckles GL, Gregg EW, Barker L, Luo H, Rutledge S, Saaddine JB for Project DIRECT Evaluation Study Group. Diabetic Retinopathy, Dilated Eye Exam, and Eye Care Education among African American Community, Raleigh and Greensboro, North Carolina – 1997-2004. J Natl Med Assoc. 2009;101:1015–1021
- Long RG, Crews JE. Assessment in Rehabilitation of Persons with Visual Impairments. In: E. Mpofu & t. Oakland (Eds.), Assessment in Rehabilitation and Health. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2009.
- Zhang X, Gregg EW, Cheng YJ, et al. Diabetes mellitus and visual impairment: national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999–2004. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(10):1421–1427. Abstractexternal icon
- Hendershot GE Crews JE. Toward international comparability of survey statistics on visual impairment: the DISTAB Project. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2006;100:11–25.
- Long RG, Crews JE, Mancil R. Creating measures of rehabilitation outcomes for people who are blind and visually impaired: The FIMBA Project. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2000:94(5); 292–306.
- Saaddine JB, Narayan KM, Engelgau MM, Aubert RE, Klein R, Beckles GL. Prevalence of self-rated visual impairment among adults with diabetes. Am.J.Public Health 1999;89(8):1200–1205. Abstractexternal icon
- Penman AD, Saaddine JB, Engelgau M, Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy: Utility of Non-mydriatic retinal photography in Egyptian adults. Diabetic Medicine 1998;15:783–787.
- Cost of Vision Problemexternal icon
- Lee P, Zhang P. Economic analysis in eye disease. Arch.Ophthalmol 2003;121(1):115–116.
- Rein DB, Zhang P, Wirth KE, et al. The economic burden of major adult visual disorders in the United States. Arch.Ophthalmol 2006;124(12):1754–1760.
- Zhang P, Zhang X, Brown J, Vistisen D, Sicree R, Shaw J, Nichols G. Global healthcare expenditure on diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diab. Res. Clin. Pract.
- Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Hoerger TJ, Zhang P, Klein BE, Lee KE, Klein R, Saaddine JB. The cost-effectiveness of Welcome to Medicare visual acuity screening and a possible alternative welcome to medicare eye evaluation among persons without diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 May 1;130(5):607–14.
- Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Song M, Saaddine JB; the Vision Cost-effectiveness Study Group. The Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Amblyopia Screening Programs. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2012 May 1;49(3):146–155.
- Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Allaire BA, Klein R, Saaddine JB, for the Vision Cost-effectiveness Study Group. The Cost-Effectiveness of Three Screening Alternatives for Diabetics with No or Early Diabetic Retinopathy. Health Serv Res. 2011 Apr 14. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2011.01263.x.
- Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Song M, Saaddine JB for the Vision Cost-effectiveness Study Group. The Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Amblyopia Screening Programs. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2011 Aug 30:1-10. doi: 10.3928/01913913-20110823-02.
- Rein DB, Saaddine JB, Wittenborn JS, et al. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 2007;114(7):1319–1326.
- Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Lee PP, Wirth KE, Sorensen SW. Hoerger TJ, Saaddine JB. The cost-effectiveness of routine office-based identification and subsequent medical treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma in the United States. Ophthalmology 2009;116(5): 823–32.
- Okoro CA, McKnight-Eily LR, Strine TW, Crews JE, Holt JB, Balluz LS. State and local area estimates of depression and anxiety among adults with disabilities in 2006. Disabil Health J Apr 2011;4(2):78–90.
- Jones, G. C., Crews, J. E., & Danielson, M. L. Health risk profile for older adults with blindness: an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 17(6), 400–410.
- Luo H, Fang X, Liao Y, Elliott AL, Zhang X. Associations of Special Care Units and Outcomes of Residents with Dementia: 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. The Gerontologist. 2010 Aug;50(4):509–18. Epub 2010 May 12.
- Zhang X, Decker F, Luo H, Geiss L, Pearson W, Saaddine JB, Gregg E, Albright A. Trends in the Prevalence and Comorbidities of Diabetes Mellitus in Nursing Home Residents in the United States: 1995–2004. J Am Geriatr Soc 58:724–730,2010.
- Jones GC, Rovner BW, Crews JE, Danielson ML. Effects of depressive symptoms on health behavior practices among older adults with vision loss. Rehabilitation Psychology 2009;54(2):164–172.
- Crews JE, Jones GC, Kim JH. Double jeopardy: The effects of comorbid conditions among older people with vision loss. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2006;100;824–848.
- Crews JE Campbell VA. Vision Impairment and Hearing Loss Among Community Dwelling Older Americans: Implications for Health and Functioning. American Journal of Public Health 2004;95(5):823–829.
- Crews JE Campbell VA. Health conditions, activity limitations, and participation restrictions among older people with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2001;95:453–467.
- Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Honeycutt AA, Lesesne SB, Saaddine J. Forecasting age-related macular degeneration through the year 2050: the potential impact of new treatments. Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127(4):533–40.
- Saaddine JB, Honeycutt AA, Narayan KM, Zhang X, Klein R, Boyle JP. Projection of diabetic retinopathy and other major eye diseases among people with diabetes mellitus: United States, 2005–2050. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(12):1740–1747.
- The State of Vision, Aging and Public Health in Americapdf iconexternal icon
- Building a Basis for Action: Enhancing Public Health Surveillance of Visual Impairment and Eye Health in the United States pdf icon[PDF–1.2MB]
- Improving the Nation’s Vision Health: A Coordinated Public Health Approach
- Crews JE, Kirchner C, Lollar DJ. The View from the Crossroads of Public Health and Vision (Re)habilitation. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2006;100; 773–779.
- Crews JE. The Role of Public Health in Addressing Aging and Sensory Loss. Generations 2003;27(10);83–90.
- Saaddine JB, Narayan KM, Vinicor F. Vision loss: a public health problem? Ophthalmology 2003;110(2):253–254.
- Jones, G. C., Crews, J. E., Roberts, D., Warren, M., Barstow, E. A., & Riddering, A. T. (2011). Living Successfully with Low Vision. In (M. Warren & E. A. Barstow, Eds.), Occupational Therapy Interventions for Adults with Low Vision. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.
- Crews, J. E. (2011). Aging, disability, and public health. In D. C. Lollar & E. Andresen (Eds.), Public Health Perspectives on Disability. New York: Springer.
- Crews JE. Foreword. In: N. P. Ringgold, Out of the Corner of My Eye (Second Edition). New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press, 2007.
- Crews JE Whittington FJ. Vision Loss in an Aging Society: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. New York: AFB Press. Translated into Japanese and published in Japan, 2003, 2003.
- Crews JE. The evolution of public policies and services for older people who are visually impaired. In: B. Silverstone, M. A. Lang, B. P. Rosenthal, & E. E. Faye (Eds.), The Lighthouse Handbook on Vision Impairment and Vision Rehabilitation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
- Maclennan P.A., McGwin G. Jr, Searcey K., Owsley C., et al. Medical Record Validation of Self-Reported Eye Diseases and Eye Care Utilization among Older Adults. Current Eye Research. 2012 Oct 18
- Visual impairment among the children pdf icon[PDF – 326 KB]
- Eye examination in infants, children, and young adults by pediatriciansexternal icon
- Magnitude and causes of visual impairment in the worldpdf iconexternal icon
- Healthy Vision 2010external icon
- The economic costs and benefits of dog guides for the blind. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2008;15(2):92–98. Abstractexternal icon
- Estimating quality-adjusted life year losses associated with visual field deficits using methodological approaches. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2007;14(4):258–264.
- Applying RE-AIM to evaluate two community-based programs designed to improve access to eye care for those at high-risk for glaucomaexternal icon
- Improving Access to Eye Care among Persons at High-Risk of Glaucoma in Philadelphia–Design and Methodology: The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Projectexternal icon
- The Impact of Educational Workshops on Individuals at Risk for Glaucoma in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Projectexternal icon
- Barriers to Receiving Follow-Up Eye Care and Detection of Non-Glaucomatous Ocular Pathology in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Projectexternal icon
- Bilateral Same-day Laser Peripheral Iridotomy in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Projectexternal icon
- Evaluation of Nonmydriatic Hand-held Optic Disc Photography Grading in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Projectexternal icon
- The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Projectexternal icon
- Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) for adults at risk for glaucoma: study rationale and designexternal icon
- Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY): Impact of an Eye Health Education Program on Patient Knowledge About Glaucoma and Attitudes About Eye Careexternal icon
- Asfar, T., Lee, D. J., Lam, B. L., Murchison, A. P., Mayro, E. L., Owsley, C., … & Saaddine, J. (2017). Evaluation of a Web-Based Training in Smoking Cessation Counseling Targeting US Eye-Care Professionals. Health Education & Behavior.external icon
- Murchison AP, Haller JA, Mayro E, Hark L, Gower E, Huisingh C, Rhodes L, Friedman DS, Lee DJ, Lam BL; Innovative Network for Sight (INSIGHT) Research Group. Reaching the unreachable: novel approaches to telemedicine screening of underserved populations for vitreoretinal disease. Curr Eye Res. 2017;42(7):963-970. PMID: 28506091.external icon
- Pizzi LT, Tran J, Shafa A, Waisbourd M, Hark L, Murchison AP, Dai Y, Mayro EL, Haller JA. Effectiveness and cost of a personalized reminder intervention to improve adherence to glaucoma care. Applied Health Econ Health Policy 2016; 29:1-2. PMID: 26924099.external icon
- Storey PP, Murchison AP, Pizzi LT, Hark LA, Dai Y, Leiby BE, Haller JA. Impact of physician communication on diabetic eye examination adherence: results from a retrospective cohort analysis. Retina. 2016 Jan;36(1):20-7. PMID: 26098386.external icon
- Aleo CL, Murchison AP, Dai Y, Hark LA, Mayro EL, Collymore B, Haller JA. Improving eye care follow-up adherence in diabetic patients with ocular abnormalities: the effectiveness of patient contracts in a free, pharmacy-based eye screening. Public Health. 2015; Jul;129(7):996-999. PMID: 26119987.external icon
- Pizzi LT, Zangalli CS, Murchison AP, Hale N, Hark LA, Dai Y, Leiby BE, Haller JA. Prospective randomized controlled trial comparing the outcomes and costs of two eye care adherence interventions in diabetes patients. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2015; Apr;13(2):253-263. PMID: 25786858.external icon
- Aleo CL, Hark LA, Leiby B, Dai Y, Murchison AP, Martinez P, Haller JA. Ophthalmic patients’ utilization of technology and social media: an assessment to improve quality of care. Telemed J E Health. 2014; Oct;20(10):887-892. PMID: 25188532external icon.
- Rovner BW, Haller JA, Casten RJ, Murchison AP, Hark LA. Depression and risk perceptions in older African Americans with diabetes. Diabetes Spectr. 2014; May;27(2):114-118. PMID: 26246767.external icon
- Zangalli CS, Murchison AP, Hale N, Hark LA, Pizzi LT, Dai Y, Leiby BE, Haller JA. An education- and telephone-based intervention to improve follow-up to vision care in patients with diabetes: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized trial. Am J Med Qual. 2014; Mar-Apr;31(2):156-161. PMID: 25270737.external icon
- Vision Surveillance in the United States: Has the Time Come? pdf icon[PDF – 56 KB]
- Surveillance of Disparities in Vision and Eye Health in the United States: An Expert Panel’s Opinions pdf icon[PDF – 159 KB]
- Building a Basis for Action: Enhancing Public Health Surveillance of Vision Impairment and Eye Health in the United States. pdf icon[PDF – 171 KB]
- Disparities in Adult Vision Health in the United States pdf icon[PDF – 271 KB]
- The Variability of Vision Loss Assessment in Federally Sponsored Surveys: Seeking Conceptual Clarity and Comparabilitypdf icon[PDF – 670 KB]
- Disparities in Eye Care Utilization Among the United States Adults with Visual Impairment: Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2006-2009 pdf icon[PDF – 371 KB]
- Vision Health Disparities in the United States by Race/Ethnicity, Education, and Economic Status: Finding From Two Nationally Representative Surveys pdf icon[PDF – 309 KB]
- Use of Electronic Health Records and Administrative Data for Public Health Surveillance of Eye Health and Vision-Related Conditions in the United States pdf icon[PDF – 241 KB]