Publications

One of the major functions of the CDC Vision Health Initiative is to describe the burden of vision loss and eye diseases in the United States and to provide that information in a published formats for publications such as the Mortality and Morbidity Weekly (MMWR) and peer-reviewed journals.

This section lists publications written by CDC/VHI staff, and key articles or reports from other authors. Electronic links are provided when possible.

VHI Staff Publications

Access To Care:

  • Saydah SH, Gerzoff RB, Saaddine J, Zhang X, Cotch MF. Eye Care Among US Adults at High Risk for Vision Loss: United States 2002 and 2017. JAMA Ophthalmology. 2020; 138(5):1-12. Summary | Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang XP, Beckles GL, Bullard KM, Gregg EW, Albright AL, Barker L, Zhang X, Ruiz-Holguín R, Cerqueira MT, Frontini M, Imperatore G. Access to health care and undiagnosed diabetes along the United States-Mexico border. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2010;28(3):182–9.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang X, Andersen R, Saaddine JB, Beckles GL, Duenas MR, Lee PP. Measuring access to eye care: a public health perspective. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2008;15(6):418–425.
    Summary
    | Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang X, Lee PP, Thompson TJ, et al. Health insurance coverage and use of eye care services. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(8):1121–1126.
    Summary | Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang X, Saaddine JB, Lee PP, et al. Eye care in the United States: do we deliver to high-risk people who can benefit most from it? Arch.Ophthalmol 2007;125(3):411–418.
    Summary | Abstractexternal icon

Assessment:

  • Chou CF, Cotch MF, Vitale S, Zhang X, Klein R, Friedman DS, Klein BE, Saaddine, JB. Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment Among U.S. Adults. Am J Prev Med 2013 Jul;45(1):29–35
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang X, Elliott MN, Saaddine JB, Berry JG, Cuccaro P, Tortolero S, Franklin F, Barker LE, Schuster MA. Unmet eye care needs among U.S. 5th-grade students. Am J Prev Med 2012 Jul;43(1):55–8.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Kemper AR, Wallace DK, Zhang X, Patel N, Crews JE. (2012). Uncorrected distance visual impairment among adolescents in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health June 2012;50(6);645–647.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Luo H, Beckles GLA, Fang X, Crews JE, Saaddine JB, Zhang X. Socioeconomic Status and Lifetime Risk for Workplace Eye Injury Reported by a US Population Aged 50 Years and Over. Ophthalmic Epidemiology Apr 2012;19(2):103–110.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Kemper AR, Wallace DK, Pate, N. Crews JE. Preschool vision testing by health providers in the United States: Findings from the 2006-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Original Research Article. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 2011 October;15(5), 480–483.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Kemper AR, Helfrich A, Talbot J, Patel N, Crews JE. Improving the rate of preschool vision screening: an interrupted time-series analysis. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov;128(5):e1279–84. Epub 2011 Oct 10.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Fan AZ, Li Y, Zhang X, Klein R, Mokdad AH, Saaddine JB, Balluz L. Alcohol consumption, drinking pattern, and self-reported visual impairment. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2012 Feb;19(1):8–15.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Li, Y., Crews, J. E., Elam-Evans, L., Fan, A. Z., Zhang, X., Elliott, A. F., & Balluz, L. (2010). Visual impairment and health-related quality of life among elderly adults with age-related eye diseases. Published online: 30 December, 2010.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang X, Kahende J, Fan AZ, Barker L, Thompson TJ, Mokdad AH, Li Y, Saaddine JB. Smoking and visual impairment among older adults with age-related eye diseases. Prev Chronic Dis 2011;8(4):A84.
    Abstract
  • Klein R, Chou CF, Klein B, Zhang X, Meuer SM, Saaddine JB. Prevalence of Age-related Macular Degeneration in the United States Population. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 Jan:129(1):75–80.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Terry AL, Paulose-Ram R, Tilert TJ, Johnson CA, Zhang X, Lee P, Saaddine JB. The methodology of visual field testing with frequency doubling technology in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Dec; 17(6):411–21.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Cheng Y, Gregg EW, Geiss LS, Imperatore G, Williams DE, Zhang X, Albright A, Cowie CC, Klein R, Saaddine JB. Association of A1C and Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels With Diabetic Retinopathy Prevalence in the U.S. Population: Implications for diabetes diagnostic thresholds. Diabetes Care 32:2027–2032, 2009
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Li Y, Liao Y, Fan A, Zhang X, Balluz L. Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Paradox in Diabetic Retinopathy: Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2006-2008. Ethn Dis. 2010 Spring;20(2):111–117.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang X, Luo H, Gregg EW, Barker L, Mukhtar Q, Rivera M, Albright A. Obesity Prevention and Diabetes Screening at Local Health Departments. Am J Public Health. 2010;100:1434–1441.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang X, Saaddine J, Chou CF, Cotch MF, Cheng YJ, Geiss LS, Gregg EW, Albright AL, Klein BE, Klein R. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United States, 2005-2008. JAMA. 2010;304(6):649–656.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang X, Williams DE, Beckles GL, Gregg EW, Barker L, Luo H, Rutledge S, Saaddine JB for Project DIRECT Evaluation Study Group. Diabetic Retinopathy, Dilated Eye Exam, and Eye Care Education among African American Community, Raleigh and Greensboro, North Carolina – 1997-2004. J Natl Med Assoc. 2009;101:1015–1021
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Long RG, Crews JE. Assessment in Rehabilitation of Persons with Visual Impairments. In: E. Mpofu & t. Oakland (Eds.), Assessment in Rehabilitation and Health. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2009.
  • Zhang X, Gregg EW, Cheng YJ, et al. Diabetes mellitus and visual impairment: national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999–2004. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(10):1421–1427.
    Summary | Abstractexternal icon
  • Hendershot GE Crews JE. Toward international comparability of survey statistics on visual impairment: the DISTAB Project. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2006;100:11–25.
  • Long RG, Crews JE, Mancil R. Creating measures of rehabilitation outcomes for people who are blind and visually impaired: The FIMBA Project. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2000:94(5); 292–306.
  • Saaddine JB, Narayan KM, Engelgau MM, Aubert RE, Klein R, Beckles GL. Prevalence of self-rated visual impairment among adults with diabetes. Am.J.Public Health 1999;89(8):1200–1205.
    Summary | Abstractexternal icon
  • Penman AD, Saaddine JB, Engelgau M, Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy: Utility of Non-mydriatic retinal photography in Egyptian adults. Diabetic Medicine 1998;15:783–787.
    Abstractexternal icon

Cost:

  • Cost of Vision Problemexternal icon
  • Lee P, Zhang P. Economic analysis in eye disease. Arch.Ophthalmol 2003;121(1):115–116.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Rein DB, Zhang P, Wirth KE, et al. The economic burden of major adult visual disorders in the United States. Arch.Ophthalmol 2006;124(12):1754–1760.
    Summary | Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang P, Zhang X, Brown J, Vistisen D, Sicree R, Shaw J, Nichols G. Global healthcare expenditure on diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diab. Res. Clin. Pract.
    2010, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2010.01.026
    Abstractexternal icon

Cost-effectiveness:

  • Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Hoerger TJ, Zhang P, Klein BE, Lee KE, Klein R, Saaddine JB. The cost-effectiveness of Welcome to Medicare visual acuity screening and a possible alternative welcome to medicare eye evaluation among persons without diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012 May 1;130(5):607–14.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Song M, Saaddine JB; the Vision Cost-effectiveness Study Group. The Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Amblyopia Screening Programs. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2012 May 1;49(3):146–155.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Allaire BA, Klein R, Saaddine JB, for the Vision Cost-effectiveness Study Group. The Cost-Effectiveness of Three Screening Alternatives for Diabetics with No or Early Diabetic Retinopathy. Health Serv Res. 2011 Apr 14. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2011.01263.x.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Song M, Saaddine JB for the Vision Cost-effectiveness Study Group. The Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Amblyopia Screening Programs. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2011 Aug 30:1-10. doi: 10.3928/01913913-20110823-02.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Rein DB, Saaddine JB, Wittenborn JS, et al. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 2007;114(7):1319–1326.
    Summary | Abstractexternal icon
  • Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Lee PP, Wirth KE, Sorensen SW. Hoerger TJ, Saaddine JB. The cost-effectiveness of routine office-based identification and subsequent medical treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma in the United States. Ophthalmology 2009;116(5): 823–32.
    Summary | Abstractexternal icon

Disability and Comorbidity:

  • Okoro CA, McKnight-Eily LR, Strine TW, Crews JE, Holt JB, Balluz LS. State and local area estimates of depression and anxiety among adults with disabilities in 2006. Disabil Health J Apr 2011;4(2):78–90.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Jones, G. C., Crews, J. E., & Danielson, M. L. Health risk profile for older adults with blindness: an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 17(6), 400–410.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Luo H, Fang X, Liao Y, Elliott AL, Zhang X. Associations of Special Care Units and Outcomes of Residents with Dementia: 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. The Gerontologist. 2010 Aug;50(4):509–18. Epub 2010 May 12.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Zhang X, Decker F, Luo H, Geiss L, Pearson W, Saaddine JB, Gregg E, Albright A. Trends in the Prevalence and Comorbidities of Diabetes Mellitus in Nursing Home Residents in the United States: 1995–2004. J Am Geriatr Soc 58:724–730,2010.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Jones GC, Rovner BW, Crews JE, Danielson ML. Effects of depressive symptoms on health behavior practices among older adults with vision loss. Rehabilitation Psychology 2009;54(2):164–172.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Crews JE, Jones GC, Kim JH. Double jeopardy: The effects of comorbid conditions among older people with vision loss. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2006;100;824–848.
  • Crews JE Campbell VA. Vision Impairment and Hearing Loss Among Community Dwelling Older Americans: Implications for Health and Functioning. American Journal of Public Health 2004;95(5):823–829.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Crews JE Campbell VA. Health conditions, activity limitations, and participation restrictions among older people with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2001;95:453–467.

Projection:

  • Rein DB, Wittenborn JS, Zhang X, Honeycutt AA, Lesesne SB, Saaddine J. Forecasting age-related macular degeneration through the year 2050: the potential impact of new treatments. Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127(4):533–40.
    Abstractexternal icon
  • Saaddine JB, Honeycutt AA, Narayan KM, Zhang X, Klein R, Boyle JP. Projection of diabetic retinopathy and other major eye diseases among people with diabetes mellitus: United States, 2005–2050. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(12):1740–1747.
    Summary | Abstractexternal icon

Public Health Approach (Editorials/Reports):

Vision Rehabilitation:

  • Jones, G. C., Crews, J. E., Roberts, D., Warren, M., Barstow, E. A., & Riddering, A. T. (2011). Living Successfully with Low Vision. In (M. Warren & E. A. Barstow, Eds.), Occupational Therapy Interventions for Adults with Low Vision. Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.
  • Crews, J. E. (2011). Aging, disability, and public health. In D. C. Lollar & E. Andresen (Eds.), Public Health Perspectives on Disability. New York: Springer.
  • Crews JE. Foreword. In: N. P. Ringgold, Out of the Corner of My Eye (Second Edition). New York: American Foundation for the Blind Press, 2007.
  • Crews JE Whittington FJ. Vision Loss in an Aging Society: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. New York: AFB Press. Translated into Japanese and published in Japan, 2003, 2003.
  • Crews JE. The evolution of public policies and services for older people who are visually impaired. In: B. Silverstone, M. A. Lang, B. P. Rosenthal, & E. E. Faye (Eds.), The Lighthouse Handbook on Vision Impairment and Vision Rehabilitation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Other Articles of Interest

Diabetes

Glaucoma

INSIGHT

Surveillance