Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

State Vaccination Requirements Selected References

General epidemiology of exemptions

  • Wang E, Clymer J, Davis-Hayes C, Buttenheim A. Nonmedical exemptions from school immunization requirements: a systematic review. AJPH. Nov 2014;104:e62-e84.

Impact of state laws on preventing disease and achieving high coverage

Clustering

  • Lieu T et al. Geographic clusters in underimmunization and vaccine refusal. PEDIATRICS 2015;135:280-289.
  • Omer SB, Enger KS, Moulton LH, Halsey NA, Stokley S, Salmon DA. Geographic clustering of nonmedical exemptions to school immunization requirements and associations with geographic clustering of pertussis. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168:1389-96.
  • May T, Silverman RD. "Clustering of exemption" as a collective action threat to herd immunity. Vaccine. 2003;21:1048-51.
  • Wang E, Clymer J, Davis-Hayes C, Buttenheim A. Nonmedical Exemptions from school immunization requirements: A systematic review. AJPH. Nov 2014;104:e62-e84.

Association of levels of exemptions and disease

  • Feikin DR, Lezotte DC, Hamman RF, Salmon DA, Chen RT, Hoffman RE. Individual and community risks of measles and pertussis associated with personal exemptions to immunization. JAMA. 2000;284:3145-50.
  • Omer SB, Enger KS, Moulton LH, Halsey NA, Stokley S, Salmon DA. Geographic clustering of nonmedical exemptions to school immunization requirements and associations with geographic clustering of pertussis. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168:1389-96.
  • Omer SB et al. Nonmedical exemptions to school immunization requirements: Secular trends and association of state policies with pertussis incidence. JAMA 2006;296:1757-1763.

Ease of obtaining a medical exemption and higher medical exemption rates

  • Stadlin S, Bednarczyk RA, Omer SB. Medical exemptions to school immunization requirements in the United States — association of state policies with medical exemption rates (2014-2011). JID 2012;206:989-992.

Changing the ease of exemption requirements to decrease VPDs

  • Yang YT, Silverman RD. Legislative prescriptions for controlling nonmedical vaccine exemptions. JAMA Viewpoint. 2015;313:247-248.
  • Gostin LO. Law, ethics, and public health in the vaccination debates. Politics of the measles outbreak. JAMA 2015;313:1099-1100.
  • Stadlin S, Bednarczyk RA, Omer SB. Medical exemptions to school immunization requirements in the United States – association of state policies with medical exemption rates (2014-2011). JID 2012;206:989-992.

Other

  • Opel DJ, Omer SB. Measles, mandates, and making vaccination the default option. JAMA Pediatrics. 2015;16(4):303-4.

Back to State Vaccination Requirements

 Top of Page

TOP