Tick-borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF)

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Tick- and Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever

Fact sheet: Be aware of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) [PDF – 1 page]

Relapsing fever can be caused by various species of Borrelia bacteria that are distantly related to Lyme disease. Relapsing fever Borrelia infections are categorized into three main groups based on the vector that transmits the bacteria: soft ticks, hard ticks, and body lice. These diseases differ in their epidemiology and severity:

  • Soft tick relapsing fever (STRF), also known as tickborne relapsing fever
  • Hard tick relapsing fever (HTRF) caused by Borrelia miyamotoi
  • Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF)