Public Health Law News
Notes from the Field: Mumps in detention facilities that house detained migrants. According to CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,mumps has been identified in migrants being held in detention facilities. Although the first confirmed cases were among detainees in facilities located in Texas, five other states have reported mumps cases in detention facilities. As of August 22, 2019, there were ongoing mumps outbreaks in 15 facilities in seven states, and new introductions continue to occur.
Model Practices Webinar Series, Part 1.external icon The National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) will host a webinar on September 25, 2019, at 2:00‒3:00 pm (EDT). The webinar will discuss this year’s award-winning model practices in community involvement, environmental health, food safety, and emergency preparedness, with presenters from Macomb County Health Department, Michigan; Michigan Department of Health and Human Services; and Harris County Public Health, Texas.
Local Health IT Virtual Conference.external icon NACCHO is hosting an inaugural virtual conference on local health IT on September 25, 2019, at 12:00‒5:00 pm (EDT). The mission of the conference is “To connect local health departments through digital platforms,” and it will serve as an online meeting space for local health IT personnel to discuss emerging issues and learn about best practices.
Webinar: Rough Waters—Disaster Preparedness, Response, and Recovery for Hurricane and Floods.external icon The National Governor’s Association, in collaboration with CDC’s Public Health Law Program (PHLP), is offering the first webinar in a four-part series called Preparedness and Response for Public Health Emergencies: Exploring the Role of Law. This first webinar will focus on the effects of flooding and hurricanes on communities and the use of emergency powers by states to respond to these disasters. It will feature perspectives on disaster impact and resilience, legal preparedness and response to flooding in the Midwest, and the results of a legal epidemiology analysis of state executive orders and proclamations issued in response to hurricanes since January 1, 2006. The webinar is September 26th, 2019, at 2:00‒3:30 pm (EDT) and will include a live question-and-answer session.
Public Health Emergency Law Online Training. September is National Preparedness Month, and PHLP has developed a free online training course that trains public health practitioners on how to make informed legal decisions regarding emergency preparedness and response when an emergency happens. Each session takes about 40 minutes to complete.
National Preparedness Month: Training and Courses.external icon The theme of this year’s National Preparedness Month is “Prepared, Not Scared.” The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is sharing a variety of resources and tips throughout September. Consider taking online training offered by FEMA to equip yourself with skills that can help you respond to disasters or emergencies more effectively.
Michigan: Michigan becomes first state to ban flavored e-cigarettesexternal icon
The Washington Post (09/04/2019) Laurie McGinley
The use of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, has been on the rise, especially among teens and young adults. In 2018, the Monitoring the Future survey found that the number of high school seniors who reported vaping nicotine in the 30 days prior to the survey has almost doubled since 2017. More recently, federal and state scientists have been investigating multiple deaths related to mysterious vaping illnesses. Some reports are linking e-cigarette use with acute lipoid pneumonia and severe pulmonary disease.
While there is still a lot to learn about the long-term effects of e-cigarettes, some officials are not waiting to act. Governor Gretchen Whitmer of Michigan has ordered a 30-day ban on flavored e-cigarettes across the state, and the Michigan Department of Health recently declared youth vaping a public health emergency. Gov. Whitmer explained that e-cigarette companies use sweet flavors to hook young people on nicotine, which can negatively affect brain development. E-cigarettes contain additional chemicals beyond nicotine, the long-term effects of which are unknown. Studies also indicate that youth who use e-cigarettes are more likely to start smoking cigarettes.
Michigan’s ban will apply to mint and methanol flavors as well as to sweet flavors like bubblegum and “fruit loops.” The ban includes both retail and online sales. The state health department is expected to issue rules shortly, after which the ban will take effect. The ban is set to last for 30 days, with the potential to be renewed for another six months while the health department works to create permanent regulations.
Vaping advocates believe that the ban will lead to a black market for the prohibited products, force small businesses to shut down, and push people back to using deadly combustible cigarettes. The president of the American Vaping Association insists that vaping products reduce harm. Both sides agree that the long-term effects of vaping are unknown, and more research will be needed to determine the negative consequences of vaping on both young adults and adult smokers.
[Editor’s note: Read the governor’s press releaseexternal icon. Learn about CDC’s investigation of the ongoing outbreak of lung illness associated with using e-cigarette products.]
Oklahoma: Judge orders drugmaker to pay $572 million in opioid lawsuitexternal icon
AP News (08/27/2019) Sean Murphy
In 2017, President Trump declared the opioid crisis a public health emergency. That same year, more than 70,000 people died from drug overdoses, and 68% of those deaths involved a prescription or illicit opioid. From 2007 to 2017, 4,653 people died from opioid overdoses in the state of Oklahoma.
Last month, an Oklahoma judge ordered Johnson & Johnson to pay $572 million for its role in the state’s opioid crisis. That amount was more than twice what Purdue Pharma and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. had settled for. The state of Oklahoma presented a case that the drug manufacturing companies and their subsidiaries led an aggressive and misleading marketing campaign that exaggerated the effectiveness of opioids’ for treating chronic pain and minimized the risk of addiction.
This ruling has set the stage for approximately 2,500 lawsuits that have been filed and consolidated before a federal judge in Ohio. The case was pursued under Oklahoma’s public nuisance statute. The financial amount set by the judge was based on the state’s abatement plan for the opioid crisis. The $572 million would cover the costs of the plan for one year and would fund activities such as opioid use prevention and addiction treatment.
The lawyers for Johnson & Johnson will appeal the judge’s decision and claim that the public nuisance law was misapplied. The company’s spokesperson has expressed sympathy for those affected by the opioid crisis but insist it has remained in strict compliance with all regulations in a heavily regulated industry. The public nuisance laws vary from state to state, but this ruling will affect future judgments to come.
[Editor’s note: Learn about the President’s actions to address the opioid crisisexternal icon, and read the HHS public health emergency declarationpdf icon[PDF – 1.60MB]external icon. Also read the holding from the Oklahoma vs. Purdue Pharma L.P., filed August 26, 2019 pdf icon[PDF – 5MB]external icon. Learn more about opioid overdose and prevention.]
California: California requires suicide prevention phone number on student IDsexternal icon
California Healthline (08/29/2019) Mark Kreidler
[Editor’s note: Read more about the new lawexternal icon, which took effect July 1, 2019.]
California: California lawmaker, governor reach deal on vaccine billexternal icon
ABC News (09/06/2019) Don Thompson
[Editor’s note: Read more about the billexternal icon.]
Colorado: Firing doctor, Christian hospital sets off national challenge to Aid-in-Dying lawsexternal icon
Kaiser Health News (08/30/2019) JoNel Aleccia
[Editor’s note: Read Colorado’s End-of-Life Options Actexternal icon.]
Florida: Hurricane Dorian tests Florida’s ability to move older adults out of harm’s wayexternal icon
The New York Times (09/03/2019) Patricia Mazzei, Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs, and Richard Fausset
[Editor’s note: Learn about emergency preparedness for older adults.]
Illinois: Juul, Philip Morris sued under Racketeer Act for targeting kidsexternal icon
Bloomberg (08/19/2019) Janan Hanna
New Mexico: As patients struggle with bills, hospital sues thousandsexternal icon
The New York Times (09/03/2019) Laura Bell
New York: New York City declares end to largest measles outbreak in nearly 30 yearsexternal icon
The Washington Post (09/03/2019) Lena H. Sun
[Editor’s note: Read more about the state’s new vaccination exemption lawsexternal icon. Learn more about vaccines.]
North Carolina: Stealing Lauri: A pig kidnapping highlights the concerns over antibiotics in livestockexternal icon.
The New York Times (08/04/2019) Andrew Jacobs
[Editor’s note: Learn more about antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance in livestock.]
Texas: Should people have a right to sleep on city streets? Texas joins national battle over urban homeless crisis.external icon
The Washington Post (08/28/2019) Tim Craig
[Editor’s note: Read about the ordinanceexternal icon that loosened the city of Austin’s public camping laws.]
Utah: Mysterious vaping lung injuries may have flown under regulatory radarexternal icon
Kaiser Health News (08/27/2019) Sydney Lupkin and Anna Maria Barry-Jester
Utah: Sex education isn’t working for Salt Lake County teenagers, health department director saysexternal icon
The Salt Lake Tribune (08/28/2019) Paighten Harkins
[Editor’s note: Learn more about Utah’s sex education lawexternal icon.]
Wisconsin: 50,000 unvaccinated children head to Wisconsin schools as the U.S. copes with worst measles outbreak in 27 yearsexternal icon
Journal Sentinel (09/03/2019) Mark Johnson
[Editor’s note: Read PHLP’s menupdf icon[PDF – 652KB] of state school immunization requirements and vaccine exemption laws.]
Wyoming: Wyoming wants to use Medicaid to reduce air ambulance bills for all patientsexternal icon
NPR (08/23/2019) Markian Hawryluk
National: Babies born after opioid exposure deserve legal recognition, lawyers argueexternal icon
The Washington Post (08/22/2019) Lenny Bernstein
[Editor’s note: Read CDC’s evaluation of state-mandated reporting of neonatal abstinence syndrome in six states.]
National: Feds pave the way to expand home dialysis—but patients hit roadblocksexternal icon
Kaiser Health News (08/22/2019) Judith Graham
[Editor’s note: Read the executive orderexternal icon.]
National: Many who die waiting for a kidney had multiple offers, new study findsexternal icon
Medical Xpress (08/30/2019)
[Editor’s note: Read the executive order on advancing American kidney healthexternal icon.]
National: New Trump rule on medical interpreters could leave immigrants behind external icon
PEW Stateline (08/29/2019) Michael Ollove
National: The Flores Agreement protected migrant children for decades. New regulations aim to end it.external icon
The New York Times (08/20/2019) Miriam Jordan
National: Trump administration plans to ban sale of flavored electronic cigarettesexternal icon
NBC News (09/11/2019) Hallie Jackson, Kristen Welker, and Janelle Griffith
[Editor’s note: Read more about the President’s plan to combat the epidemic of youth e-cigarette useexternal icon.]
Europe: Lives at risk from surge in measles across Europe, experts warnexternal icon
The Guardian (08/29/2019) Nicola Davis
[Editor’s note: Read a reportpdf icon[PDF – 734KB]external icon by the World Health Organization about measles in Europe.]
Japan: Hundreds of thousands ordered to evacuate after heavy rain hits Japanexternal icon
CNN (08/28/2019) Yoko Wakatsuki and Eric Cheung
Liberia: Liberia declares health emergency as Lassa fever deaths rise to 21external icon
Xinhua Net (09/02/2019) Shi Yinglun
[Editor’s note: Learn more about Lassa fever.]
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe proposes designating health services as essential amid doctors’ strike external icon
Reuters (09/04/2019) Olivia Kumwenda-Mtambo
Global: Whatever happened to the campaign to ban spanking?external icon
NPR (09/03/2019) Diane Cole
[Editor’s note: See also Corporal punishment bans and physical fighting in adolescents: an ecological study of 88 countriespdf icon[PDF – 660KB]external icon.]
Title: Director of Legal and Public Health Preparedness, Center for Preparedness Education, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center
Education: JD, American University Washington College of Law; BA, Baylor University
Public Health Law News (PHLN): What led you to working in public health preparedness?
Lookadoo: I’ve had somewhat of a circuitous route to get to working in public health preparedness. During law school, I focused primarily on areas of law that affected senior adults, including Medicare policy. After graduating, I began working in regulatory compliance for a long-term care and assisted living provider. Through that role, I worked on implementing the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services emergency preparedness regulations, and I found that I really enjoyed working on preparedness-related issues. In early 2018, I started a position with the Center for Preparedness Education at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), which has given me the opportunity to focus entirely on preparedness and explore a broader range of connected topics, such as pandemic planning, isolation and quarantine law, and climate change.
PHLN: Why were you interested in preparedness law?
Lookadoo: I like to joke that as a lifelong worrier, preparedness law was a natural fit. In all seriousness, I think preparedness law is a fascinating field—and one that is critically important to healthcare and public health. When an emergency occurs, the legal requirements that a given facility may need to follow can become a lower priority in the face of immediate disaster response. I enjoy educating and consulting with healthcare facilities and local public health departments, and helping them plan ahead of time to find practical ways to adhere to their legal and regulatory requirements while still continuing their response operations.
PHLN: What is the Center for Preparedness Education?
Lookadoo: The Center for Preparedness Education was founded in 2002 with the intent of providing education and training to public health, healthcare, and other organizations and individuals who deal with preparedness. We conduct in-person and online learning programs across Nebraska and the United States. Our trainings cover a variety of topics, including incident command, mass casualty triage, business continuity, hospital first receiver, basic disaster life support, and numerous others. In addition to providing trainings, the Center works closely with a wide range of stakeholders (urban and rural) in disaster planning, including public health, hospitals, emergency management and critical infrastructure in the private sector. One of the things I enjoy the most about working with the Center is being able to engage directly with those stakeholders who are responsible for emergency planning and response. It’s incredible to see the work being done at all levels of response.
PHLN: What are the main projects you are working on as the Director of Legal and Public Health Preparedness?
Lookadoo: Right now, my main projects run the gamut of preparedness topics. I’m working with the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services to conduct a statewide jurisdictional risk assessment, which will identify the hazards and threats that are of the greatest concern to the state. This assessment will provide local health departments and healthcare coalitions an opportunity to gauge their own level of preparedness for the highest priority threats in Nebraska. We conducted regional assessments across the state last year, which demonstrated some of the key differences between the threats that face rural and urban communities.
Additionally, in response to a grant from the US Department of Health and Human Services’ Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Nebraska is developing a Regional Disaster Health Response Ecosystem. This project brings together stakeholders from across the region to develop a strengthened model for responding to emergencies at regional, state, and local levels. I serve as the legal and policy lead for the grant and have created a legal reference guide that outlines the relevant state and federal laws and regulations and legal issues that may arise in an emergency. My intent for the guide is for it to be a quick reference for healthcare organizations that may be unclear about their legal obligations during an emergency.
Recently, I’ve also been working on some projects that help local health departments better prepare for climate events such as drought or extreme weather. Climate change is not always viewed through the preparedness lens, so it’s interesting to see how that perspective changes the way organizations approach climate-related events.
PHLN: How is the Center for Preparedness Education supporting quarantine and isolation efforts?
Lookadoo: UNMC and Nebraska Medicine, the partner hospital connected to our campus, are home to the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit. This isolation unit was one of three units in the United States used to care for Ebola patients during the 2014 outbreak. Since then, Nebraska has continued to focus on the issues of isolation and quarantine, including the recent publication of a Nebraska judicial bench book focused on pandemics. This bench book led to the National Center for State Courts hosting a National Summit on Pandemic Preparedness at UNMC this past spring. The Center assisted in planning and facilitating the summit, where state Supreme Court justices and various other state court employees from across the country convened to learn more about pandemic planning. The Center also conducted two tabletop exercises for attendees, addressing issues of isolation and quarantine law and continuity of operations in the event of a pandemic.
Additionally, UNMC and Nebraska Medicine have recently established a federal quarantine center. As part of that process, they published a Nebraska isolation and quarantine manual. I wrote a chapter that covered the various legal considerations involved in isolation and quarantine situations.
PHLN: What is a bench book and why might it be important for effective emergency legal preparedness?
Lookadoo: Bench books are tools that assist judges as they make decisions in a case. They outline the legal procedure and authorities for more technical areas of law. For a topic such as isolation and quarantine law, which is governed primarily at the state level, a bench book helps clarify the nuances of the law. Additionally, because the emergency issues that may be addressed in a bench book are unique situations that judges will likely not see in their routine caseload, a bench book can serve as a quick source of information should the need arise.
PHLN: How is the quarantine center unique, and how was the project developed?
Lookadoo: As a result of Nebraska’s demonstrated work in dealing with quarantine and infectious diseases, the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response selected UNMC and Nebraska Medicine to develop a federal Training, Simulation, and Quarantine Center (TSQC). The National Quarantine Unit of TSQC is the first and only dedicated federal quarantine unit in the United States that is specifically designed and intended to be used as such—apart from the CDC-run federal quarantine stations housed at major ports of entry. The unit contains 20 negative pressure rooms, which are able to accommodate individuals exposed to contact and/or airborne pathogens. The National Quarantine Unit is housed within the UNMC/Nebraska Medicine Global Center for Health Security, which focuses on biosecurity and biopreparedness issues from local to international levels.
PHLN: How does the quarantine center’s activity relate to public health law practice in Nebraska?
Lookadoo: By being home to the nation’s first federal quarantine center, Nebraska can continue to develop expertise in the areas of quarantine law and pandemic preparedness. While this is a federally funded quarantine center, there is a possibility that jurisdiction for the quarantined individuals may be turned over to local health departments. If that happens, public health lawyers in Nebraska could have the opportunity to face numerous relevant legal issues such as involuntary quarantine, habeas relief, and the rights entitled to quarantined individuals. Furthermore, as quarantine matters are inextricably linked to clinical decisions, the quarantine center also provides an opportunity for public health, healthcare, and legal partners to strengthen collaborative relationships and develop best practices for addressing pandemics and other infectious diseases.
PHLN: How can individuals and health departments learn more about quarantine and isolation policy and law?
Lookadoo: One of the interesting things about isolation and quarantine law is that it varies dramatically across states. Federal quarantine is rarely invoked, so issues of isolation and quarantine are most frequently resolved at the state level. Individuals or health departments that wish to learn more about the relevant laws and policies in their state should visit the websites of their state health departments for the laws and regulations that would apply to them.
PHLN: Do you have any hobbies?
Lookadoo: When I’m not working, I love to read and travel. I’m planning my first trip to South America this year, and I’m really looking forward to exploring somewhere that’s brand new to me.
The first reader to correctly answer the quiz question will be featured in a mini public health law profile in the October 2019 edition of the News. Email your entry to PHLawProgram@cdc.gov with “PHL Quiz” as the subject heading (entries without the heading will not be considered). Good luck!
Public Health Law NewsQuiz Question—September 2019
What major city in the United States was the first to ban the sale and distribution of all e-cigarettes?
Jamie Dean Whartenby
August question: What federal law requires federal buildings that are open to the public and have public restrooms also to have designated lactation rooms that would be open to the public, as well as to federal employees?
Winning answer: Fairness for Breastfeeding Mothers Act (H.R. 866)
Employment organization and job title: Administrative Specialist, Office of Research Development, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center
A brief explanation of your job: My primary duties are locating funding opportunities for faculty, staff, and students’ research and projects and assisting the director in managing the intramural and extramural grant competitions for the Office of Research. One of the more interactive parts of my job includes event management for the Health Sciences Entrepreneurship Series and the Launching Entrepreneurial Activities and Discovery in Science lectures. While it’s not a formal job duty, I’m also the “fix-it” person in the office!
Education: Master of public administration and bachelor of arts in political science and English literature, Murray State University; graduate certificate candidate in health systems leadership, The University of Memphis
Favorite section of Public Health Law News: Court Opinions remains my favorite section. In my undergraduate career, I was blessed to study constitutional law under Dr. Joseph Rose. He fostered a love for the law and gifted me with his library upon retirement. I remember hours upon hours of discourse about court opinions and how they were written. Now, I continue to be fascinated as I study current rulings, particularly regarding healthcare.
Why are you interested in public health law? Public health law focuses on advocacy, legal practices, and scholarship. When stripped down, the law is meant for one purpose—protection and promotion of health. The law is one tool we can use to protect what is easy to lose, difficult to maintain, and critical for all to enjoy their best life.
What is your favorite hobby? I crave the outdoors! Truly, most days I leave my paid full-time job to go scouting, where I blend my love of outdoors with teaching youth leadership skills. I adore watching youth grow and develop into phenomenal forces of change for tomorrow. I have a husband, two sons, and a daughter. We all scout together. It’s the best choice we’ve made yet to keep our family healthy.
Connecticut: The appellate court affirmed a lower court opinion allowing the construction of a new affordable housing complex. The Town Plan and Zoning Commission of Fairfield denied Garden Homes Management Corporation’s plan for a new affordable housing development, citing the development’s 20-foot-wide entry as too small for fire trucks to turn around. After Garden Homes modified the plan, the lower court found that the need for affordable housing in the state outweighed the concern about the “maneuverability within the turnaround area” since the revised plan “constituted a health and safety improvement to the plan.” The appellate court noted that the Commission’s health and safety concerns were valid but found that the Commission failed to demonstrate that those concerns outweighed the need for affordable housing.
Appellate Court of Connecticut
Case No. AC 40519
Released August 13, 2019
Opinion by Judge William J. Lavery
Florida: The Florida Appellate Court answered a certified question from the lower court about the regulation of medical marijuana centers regarding the authority of the Department of Health and the legislature to regulate medical marijuana treatment centers (MMTCs). The people of Florida allowed MMTCs by constitutional amendment, which in part authorized the Department of Health to “issue reasonable regulations necessary for the implementation and enforcement” of MMTCs. The amendment also defined MMTCs as an entity that “cultivates . . . processes . . . transports . . . dispenses, or administers marijuana.” However, the Florida legislature had recently passed a law that seemed to require complete vertical integration for all MMTCs since it stated that “a licensed medical marijuana treatment center shall cultivate, process, transport and dispense marijuana for medical use.”
The Court held that, since the power to allow MMTCs was delegated to the people of Florida, and the amendment delegated enforcement and regulatory authority to the Department of Health, the legislature cannot overrule these regulations and allow require the vertical integration of MMTCs. While the legislature is permitted to “enact laws consistent with this section,” the statute that the legislature passed was found to be at odds with the constitutional language.
District Court of Appeal of Florida, First District
Case No. 1D18-4471
Decided August 27, 2019
New York: The New York Supreme Court refused to grant a preliminary injunction to parents who wish to refuse vaccines for their children on religious grounds. New York recently repealed the portion of its vaccination statute that allowed schools to accept unvaccinated children who did not receive vaccinations on the basis of religious belief. Now, the only unvaccinated children allowed in New York schools are those who cannot receive vaccines for medical reasons.
The court denied the preliminary injunction because it did not think the claim was likely to succeed on the merits and because the balance of harms weighed in favor of the greater community. Although the court recognized the significant and irreparable harm to parents who, under the present law, would have to violate their religious beliefs, homeschool their children, or move to another state, the court stressed the importance of herd immunity. The court concluded that the risk to the greater community outweighed the harm to the individual parents and children.
New York Supreme Court, Albany County
Case No. 4108-19
Decided August 23, 2019
Opinion by Denise A. Hartman
Rhode Island: The Defendant’s motions to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction and for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted in an opioid litigation case were denied. The state of Rhode Island has sued the defendants, including opioid manufacturer Purdue Pharma and Richard Sackler, alleging public nuisance, violations of the Rhode Island False Claims Act, fraud, misrepresentation, negligence, negligence per se,gross negligence, negligent misrepresentation, and unjust enrichment. According to the court, all five counts set forth in the state’s complaint were properly pled.
Superior Court of Rhode Island, Providence, SC
Case No. PC-2018-4555
Filed August 16, 2019
Opinion by Justice Alice B. Gibney
“In the absence of robust regulation by the Food and Drug Administration, we know shockingly little about the health impact of e-cigarettes being widely marketed to youth and adults. The recent outbreak of respiratory illnesses associated with e-cigarette use has only added to the uncertainty and increased the need for immediate action. What we do know is nicotine is highly addictive and has adverse effects on the developing brain, and flavors strongly appeal to youth….We urge the FDA to move urgently to protect public health and exercise strict oversight over all e-cigarette products,” said Nancy Brown, CEO of the American Heart Association, about Michigan’s ban of flavored e-cigarettes.
[Editor’s note: This quote is from the press releaseexternal icon from the Office of Governor Gretchen Whitmer, Michigan, 09/04/2019.]
The Public Health Law Newsis published the third Thursday of each month except holidays, plus special issues when warranted. It is distributed only in electronic form and is free of charge.
The Newsis published by the Public Health Law Program in the Center for State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support.
Public Health Law News (the News) content is selected solely on the basis of newsworthiness and potential interest to readers. CDC and HHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented from other sources. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or HHS. Opinions expressed by the original authors of items included in the News, persons quoted therein, or persons interviewed for the News are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or HHS. References to products, trade names, publications, news sources, and non-CDC websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or HHS. Legal cases are presented for educational purposes only, and are not meant to represent the current state of the law. The findings and conclusions reported in this document are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of CDC or HHS. The News is in the public domain and may be freely forwarded and reproduced without permission. The original news sources and the Public Health Law News should be cited as sources. Readers should contact the cited news sources for the full text of the articles.