Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 10049–04–4
NIOSH REL: 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3) TWA, 0.3 ppm (0.9 mg/m3) STEL
Current OSHA PEL: 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3) TWA, 0.3 ppm (0.9 mg/m3) STEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.1 ppm (0.28 mg/m3) TWA, 0.3 ppm (0.83 mg/m3) STEL
Description of Substance: Yellow to red gas or a red-brown liquid (below 52 F) with an unpleasant odor similar to chlorine and nitric acid.
LEL: . . Unknown
Original (SCP) IDLH: 10 ppm
Basis for original (SCP): IDLH AIHA  reported that rats exposed repeatedly to about 10 ppm for 4 hours daily died, whereas those exposed to about 0.1 ppm, 5 hours daily for 10 weeks, showed no detectable effects [Dalhamn 1957]. AIHA  also reported that animals survived 2-hour exposures to 20 ppm, though some species exhibited symptoms [Gloemme and Lundgren 1957]. Elkins  stated that 5 ppm is definitely irritating and 2 cases of illness (1 fatal) resulted from exposure to less than 19 ppm. AIHA  reported that delayed deaths occur in animals after single exposures to 150 to 200 ppm for less than 1 hour [Gloemme and Lundgren 1957]. Based on the data cited above, an IDLH of 10 ppm is chosen.
Short-term exposure guidelines None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
Lethal concentration data:
|Species||Reference||LC50(ppm)||LCLo(ppm)||Time||Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF)||Derivedvalue|
|Rat||Dalhamn 1957||—–||260||2 hr||416 ppm (1.6)||42 ppm|
Lethal dose data:
|Species||Reference||Route||LD50(mg/kg)||LDLo(mg/kg)||Adjusted LD||Derived value|
|Rat||Abdel-Rahman et al. 1982||oral||292||—–||729 ppm||73 ppm|
Human data: It has been reported that 5 ppm is definitely irritating and that 19 ppm caused the death of one worker inside a tank (time of exposure was not specified) [Elkins 1950].
|Revised IDLH: 5 ppmBasis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH is 5 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Elkins 1950].|
1. Abdel-Rahman MS, Gerges SE, Alliger H . Toxicity of alcide. J Appl Toxicol 2(3):160-164.
2. AIHA . Chlorine dioxide. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 19:261-262.
3. Dalhamn T . Chlorine dioxide: toxicity in animal experiments and industrial risks. AMA Arch Ind Health 15(2):101-107.
4. Elkins HB . Chlorine dioxide, ClO2. In: The chemistry of industrial toxicology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 87-88.
5. Gloemme J, Lundgren KD . Health hazards from chlorine dioxide. AMA Arch Ind Health 16:169-176.