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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Zinc oxide

RTECS #

ZH4810000

CAS #

1314-13-2; 8051-03-4; 78590-82-6

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

81.37

Molecular Formula

OZn

Synonyms

Actox 14
Actox 16
Actox 216
AI3-00277
Akro-zinc bar 85
Akro-zinc bar 90
Amalox
Azo-33
Azo-55
Azo-55TT
Azo-66
Azo-66TT
Azo-77
Azo-77TT
Azodox-55
Azodox-55TT
C.I. 77947
C.I. Pigment White 4
Cadox XX 78
Chinese White
Cynku tlenek (Polish)
Electox 2500
Emanay zinc oxide
EMAR
Felling zinc oxide
Flowers of zinc
GIAP 10
Green seal-8
Hubbuck's White
Kadox 15
Kadox 72
Kadox-25
K-Zinc
Outmine
Ozide
Ozlo
Permanent White
Philosopher's wool
Powder base 900
Protox type 166
Protox type 167
Protox type 168
Protox type 169
Protox type 267
Protox type 268
Red Seal 9
Snow White
Unichem ZO
Vandem VAC
Vandem VOC
White seal-7
XX 203
XX 601
XX 78
Zinc oxide (ACGIH:OSHA)
Zinc oxide fume
Zinc oxide fume (OSHA)
Zinc White
Zinca 20
Zincite
Zincoid
Zn 0701T
ZN-0401 E 3/16''

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild28ZPAK -,10,1972
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild28ZPAK -,10,1972

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat100 µg/m3CYGEDX 12(3),46,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/human100 µmol/L/30HMUREAV 650,39,2008
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli3000 ppmMUREAV 89,95,1981
morphological transformembryo/hamster1 mg/LSHIGAZ 74,1385,1987
other mutation test systemsoral/Drosophila melanogaster6.25 mmol/L/48HFCTOD7 84,55,2015
sister chromatid exchangeembryo/hamster300 µg/LSHIGAZ 74,1385,1987
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisinhalation/guinea pig5300 µg/m3/3H/6DTXAPA9 78,29,1985
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisembryo/hamster1 mg/LSHIGAZ 74,1385,1987

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 6846 mg/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
JONUAI 98,303,1969

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.2 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JIDHAN 9,88,1927
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2500 mg/m3ENTOX* -,481,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/3HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 72,298,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/3HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 44,213,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 240 mg/kgZDKAA8 38(9),18,1978
intratracheal/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVN1* -,151,1988
intratracheal/rat Lethal dose: >4979 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
ESKGA2 35,P19,1989
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgYAKUD5 22,291,1980
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7950 mg/kgENTOX* -,481,2005
oral/rat Lethal dose: >8437 mg/kgGTPZAB 18(5),48,1974

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 5900 µg/m3/3H/3D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JTEHD6 25,57,1988
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 4600 µg/m3/3H/6D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TXAPA9 78,29,1985
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/6D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
HBTME* -,925,2007
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 15 mg/m3/1H/84D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVN1* -,153,1988
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 6.9 mg/m3/7D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
INHTE5 15,435,2003
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 6468 mg/kg/1W- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 57,309,1991
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 12.93 gm/kg/2W- intermittentEndocrine: Change in GHTOLED5 57,309,1991
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 25.87 gm/kg/4W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changesTOLED5 57,309,1991
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 32203 mg/kg/4W- continuousEndocrine: Change in GH

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 57,309,1991
oral/domestic animal lowest published toxic dose: 3584 mg/kg/4W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
JJATDK 4,92,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 17431 mg/kg/90D- continuousBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)TOXID9 36(1 Pt2),183,1997

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 2 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (resp)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWANAEA3 35,165,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJIDHAN 8,322,1926
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,481,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,925,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,239,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,72,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 752,67,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 30,67,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 91,42,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 32,203,2017

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESRED CompletedRBREV* -,346,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (fume)DTLVS* 3,284,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (dust), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (fume), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 5 mg/m3, resp, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (dust), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (fume), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 4 mg(Zn)/m3 (fume), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 10 mg/m3 (dust), 5 mg/m3 (fume), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.1 mg(Zn)/m3, resp, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 2 mg(Zn)/m3, inhal, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (resp), short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (resp), SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 4 mg(Zn)/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 1 mg/m3 (resp. dust), 4 mg/m3 (total dust), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (fume), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (inhalable), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (fume), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (fume), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (inspirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3; short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) fume 5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) fume 10 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDceiling concentration 0.125 mg/m3, fume, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.1 mg(Zn)/m3, KZG-week 0.4 mg(Zn)/m3, resp, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 2 mg(Zn)/m3, KZG-week 4 mg(Zn)/m3, inhal, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (fume), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, fume and respirable fractionCFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dustCFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 5 mg/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, fume and respirable fractionCFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dustCFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, fume and respirable fractionCFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dustCFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ZINC OXIDE, fume-air10H time-weighted average 5 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ZINC OXIDE, total dust-airtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3;ceiling concentration 15 mg/m3/15MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X5686; Number of Industries 295; Total Number of Facilities 56635; Number of Occupations 168; Total Number of Employees Exposed 919197; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 151582
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X9509; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 7; Number of Occupations 1; Total Number of Employees Exposed 105; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 7

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements by ICP, 7300
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Zinc and compounds, 7030 or 7502
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID121
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID143
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