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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Toluene

RTECS #

XS5250000

CAS #

108-88-3

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

92.15

Molecular Formula

C7H8

Synonyms

Antisal 1a
Benzene, methyl-
CP 25
Methacide
Methane, phenyl-
Methylbenzene
Methylbenzol
NCI-C07272
Phenylmethane
RCRA waste number U220
Tolueen (Dutch)
Toluen (Czech)
Toluene (ACGIH:OSHA)
Tolueno (Spanish)
Toluol
Toluolo (Italian)
Tolu-Sol

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /human 300 ppmJIHTAB 25,282,1943
eye /rabbit 870 µg mildUCDS** 7/23/1970
eye /rabbit 2 mg/24H severe85JCAE -,29,1986
eye /rabbit 100 mg/30S rinse mildFCTOD7 20,573,1982
skin /pig 250 µL/24H mildTXCYAC 161,1,2001
skin /rabbit 435 mg mildUCDS** 7/23/1970
skin /rabbit 500 mg moderateFCTOD7 20,563,1982
skin /rabbit 20 mg/24H moderate85JCAE -,29,1986

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat5400 µg/m3/16W- intermittentGTPZAB 25(7),33,1981
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/rat9600 mg/kg/12D- intermittentGISAAA 37(10),36,1972
DNA Damageliver/rat30 µmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA Damageother cell types/Drosophila melanogaster100 mmol/L/24HTXAPA9 253,14,2011
micronucleus testoral/mouse200 mg/kgMUREAV 147,294,1985
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse433 µg/kg/24HARTODN 58,106,1985
other mutation test systemsinhalation/grasshopper20 pph/16HMUREAV 113,467,1983
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster1 pphCONAEL 1,35,1985
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/human252 µg/L/19YMUREAV 519,171,2002
specific locus testliver/mouse2442 µmol/LMUREAV 608,29,2006
Unscheduled DNA Synthesis/Escherichia coli1 pphJOBAAY 137,397,1979
Unscheduled DNA Synthesis/Other microorganisms1 pph/15M-continuousJOVIAM 12,1195,1973

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 1500 mg/m3/24H (1-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXCYAC 11,55,1978
inhalation/rat 1000 mg/m3/24H (7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemFMORAO 28,286,1980
inhalation/rat 2000 ppm/6H (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
JTSCDR 20,109,1995
inhalation/rat 800 mg/m3/6H (14-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
BJMRDK 23,533,1990
inhalation/rat 1200 ppm/6H (9-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effectsARTODN 71,258,1997
inhalation/mouse 500 mg/m3/24H (6-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TXCYAC 11,55,1978
inhalation/mouse 1000 ppm/6H (2-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTJEMDR 7,265,1982
inhalation/mouse 400 ppm/7H (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
FAATDF 6,145,1986
inhalation/mouse 200 ppm/7H (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemFAATDF 6,145,1986
inhalation/rabbit 1 gm/m3/24H (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: AbortionATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation/rabbit 100 ppm/6H (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) systemARTODN 66,373,1992
inhalation/hamster 800 mg/m3/6H (6-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralBJMRDK 23,533,1990
inhalation/rat 6000 mg/m3 (4D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
VCVGH* -,145,1990
inhalation/rat 6000 mg/m3 (21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
VCVGH* -,145,1990
inhalation/rat 1500 ppm (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)JAPTO* 27,32,2007
inhalation/rat 1500 ppm (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
BCLPT* 94,169,2004
inhalation/rat 1500 ppm (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)PHTOEH 92,148,2003
inhalation/rat 12000 ppm (8-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NETEEC 29,236,2007
inhalation/rat 8000 ppm (8-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNETEEC 29,236,2007
inhalation/rat 8000 ppm (8-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratioNETEEC 31,89,2009
inhalation/rat 0.9 ppm (14-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOLED5 185,79,2009
inhalation/mouse 50 ppm (14-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
JTSCDR 34,SP341,2009
inhalation/rat 1800 ppm (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
ARTODN 75,103,2001
inhalation/rat 2000 ppm (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
REPTED 17,649,2003
inhalation/rat 12000 ppm (8-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 27,105,2005
inhalation/rat 1500 ppm (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemNETEEC 27,153,2005
inhalation/rat 1500 ppm (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)PHTOEH 92,148,2003
inhalation/mouse 5 ppm (14-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsTOLED5 208,133,2012
inhalation/mouse 5 ppm (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsTOLED5 208,133,2012
inhalation/rat 8000 ppm (8-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NETEEC 38,29,2013
inhalation/rat 12000 ppm (8-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemNETEEC 38,29,2013
inhalation/mouse 8000 ppm (7-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NETEEC 40,9,2013
multiple/rat 1500 ppm (7-20D pregnant)Behavioral: Straub TailPHTOEH 92,148,2003
oral/rat 5000 mg/kg (16-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
REPTED 26,267,2008
oral/mouse 8700 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)VCVGH* -,145,1990
oral/mouse 9 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathTJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral/mouse 15 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral/mouse 30 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral/rat 7280 mg/kg (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)PEREBL 36,811,1994
oral/rat 9100 mg/kg (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
REPTED 12,119,1998
oral/rat 16 mL/kg (6-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalPEREBL 47,362,2000

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, erythrocytes Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.3 gm/L/30MBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TIHEEC 25,545,2009
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 1.14 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2.74 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 2.18 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 4.40 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 gm/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 289,28,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µg/m3/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXCYAC 289,28,2011
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 60 µL/well/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1476,2013
In Vitro/jvxInhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 1.22 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/jvxInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3.79 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 271,122,2010
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 1600 ppmBehavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Irritability
JIDHAN 10,261,1928
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppmBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Antipsychotic

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
JAMAAP 123,1106,1943
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 825 mg/m3/6HOlfaction: Change in sensation of smell

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Headache
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 750 mg/m3/8HEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Wakefulness

Behavioral: Headache
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 1125 mg/m3/8HBehavioral: AtaxiaVCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 mg/m3/8HEye: Lacrimation

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 1875 mg/m3/8HBehavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 3000 mg/m3/8HBehavioral: Wakefulness

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 5625 mg/m3/8HBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 15000 mg/m3/1HBehavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,145,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 37500 mg/m3Behavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,145,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/15MBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NETOX* 48,50,2015
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 30 gm/m3GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppmBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
WEHRBJ 9,131,1972
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppmKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTOLED5 129,65,2002
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/30MPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving segmental distributionTXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1746 ppm/30MPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving segmental distribution

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 4000 ppm/30MPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving segmental distribution

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 400 ppm/24HNRTXDN 2,567,1981
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 30000 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 19900 mg/m3/7HVCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10000 mg/m3Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 30000 mg/m3VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/30MBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Antianxiety
PSCHDL 204,279,2009
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 ppmBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NETEEC 34,481,2012
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 ppm/30MBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NETEEC 40,28,2013
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 45000 ppm/3MBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 45000 ppm/9MEye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 45000 ppm/11MEar: TumorsVCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 45000 ppm/15MEye: Other eye effectsVCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 45000 ppm/16MBehavioral: TremorVCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 45000 ppm/40MVCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mL/kg/2HEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 mg/m3/4HBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Histamines (including liberation not immunochemical in origin)
VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 4000 mg/m3/1HBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 ppm/2HBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningVCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/6HBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Autonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Autonomic Nervous System: Parasympatholytic
NETEEC 22,603,2001
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 49 gm/m3/4HGTPZAB 32(10),23,1988
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mL/kg/2HEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 ppmBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP
TOXID9 72,180,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3350 ppmBehavioral: General anestheticPBBHAU 74,997,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 ppm/20MBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOXID9 44,10,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1333 ppm/7.5HBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)TOXID9 66,253,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 8000 ppm/30MBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNETEEC 29,466,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 4000 ppm/20MBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETEEC 29,599,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 12000 ppm/30MBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)NETEEC 31,89,2009
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/6HBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNETEEC 33,521,2011
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/30MBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
NETEEC 31,382,2009
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/1HBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningNETEEC 32,611,2010
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/5MBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNETEEC 34,37,2012
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgNRTXDN 2,567,1981
intraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published lethal dose: 1750 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AJHYA2 7,276,1927
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 59 mg/kgNRTXDN 2,567,1981
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdTOLED5 160,179,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgBehavioral: Anticonvulsant

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
TOLED5 160,179,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
PBBHAU 94,588,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsTXAPA9 265,158,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
TXAPA9 265,158,2012
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTXCYAC 265,34,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TXCYAC 265,34,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOLED5 157,151,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
PSCHDL 176,435,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOLED5 157,151,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsNETEEC 27,883,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NEROEW 28,1440,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 2.5 mL/kgPNSCC* 16,162,1992
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1332 mg/kgENVRAL 40,411,1986
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 130 mg/kgHAEMAX 58,491,1973
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1960 mg/kgMELAAD 54,486,1963
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgYAKUD5 22,883,1980
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 gm/kgGTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 719 µL/kgCardiac: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Liver: Other changes
FSINDR 41,255,1989
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,143,1990
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JTEHD6 25,87,1988
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 636 mg/kgNRTXDN 2,567,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BPTOXID9 44,428,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
TOXID9 44,428,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Cardiac: Change in rate

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
NETEEC 29,228,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseNETEEC 29,228,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOXID9 -,447,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.65 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXAPA9 256,386,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NRTXDN 33,111,2012
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14100 µL/kgAIHAAP 30,470,1969
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 26.4 mg/kgSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritative

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 255,100,2009
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 920 mg/kgAutonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
AEPPAE 130,250,1928
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2250 mg/kgNRTXDN 8,237,1987
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 gm/kgGISAAA 45(12),64,1980
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6900 mg/kgGISAAA 45(12),64,1980

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6H/6W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNETEEC 33,598,2011
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/5D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TOLED5 208,133,2012
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 12000 ppm/10M/8W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 61,302,1981
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1250 ppm/6H/14W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-371,1990
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/6H/20D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
JTSCDR 2,363,1977
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppm/4D- continuousBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Abuse
LIFSAK 72,3035,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/3W- intermittentOlfaction: Change in sensation of smell

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TOLED5 165,57,2006
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/2W- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTOLED5 165,57,2006
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 9 ppm/29D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 222,17,2007
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/12W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNRTXDN 28,168,2007
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 9 ppm/4W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNRTXDN 28,957,2007
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 6000 ppm/40D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningNETEEC 29,588,2007
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 4000 ppm/30M/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
NETEEC 40,28,2013
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNRTXDN 31,85,2010
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 9 ppm/30M/56D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 191,240,2009
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 90 ppm/30M/56D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOLED5 191,240,2009
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 31,647,2010
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6H/6W- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleenTXCYAC 286,28,2011
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/4H/26W- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticityGISAAA 32(9),105,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 6000 ppm/2H/5W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TXCYAC 139,193,1999
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6H/3D- continuousEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS
TOLED5 5,393,1980
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/16W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
PBBHAU 74,997,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/16W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS
TXCYAC 196,21,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 ppm/4H/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JTSCDR 25,223,2000
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 ppm/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JTSCDR 25,223,2000
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1895 ppm/30M/6D- intermittentBehavioral: Abuse

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
EJPHAZ 477,45,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningNETEEC 34,83,2012
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentEye: Retinal changes pigmentary deposition, retinitis, other)

Eye: Other eye effects
TOLED5 196S,S3,2010
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1600 ppm/20H/7D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AJHYA2 7,276,1927
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 12000 ppm/10M/8W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 61,302,1981
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 3,315,1983
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2500 ppm/6.5H/15W- intermittentCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-371,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 ppm/6H/26W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
PHTOEH 68,384,1991
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 320 ppm/24H/30D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 45,123,1987
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/5H/21D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsBCTKAG 13,365,1980
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2200 ppm/8H/23W- intermittentBehavioral: Ataxia

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 13,387,1991
inhalation/rat : 1500 ppm/7D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJAPTO* 27,32,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningNETEEC 32,611,2010
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1750 ppm/4W- intermittentEar: Change in acuityNETEEC 30,154,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1450 ppm/4H/7D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 29,505,2009
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 12,403,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1750 ppm/5D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
NETEEC 30,154,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 ppm/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETEEC 29,599,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 4000 ppm/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETEEC 29,599,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 ppm/12D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changesPHTOEH 92,148,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 8000 ppm/13D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNETEEC 29,236,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1600 ppm/11D- intermittentBehavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TOXID9 78,61,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainPHTOEH 92,148,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 ppm/14D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainPHTOEH 92,148,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 11058 µg/kg/30D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TIHEEC 9,479,1993
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOLED5 205,336,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEGTOLED5 205,336,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
TXAPA9 197,362,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52 mL/kg/4D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 26,195,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1548 ng/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 144,55,2003
multiple/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
PHTOEH 92,148,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 95.2 mg/kg/4W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesIMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1134 mg/kg/14D- continuousEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasiaIMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2268 mg/kg/4W- continuousBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
IMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
DCTODJ 17,317,1994
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 227 gm/kg/13W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-371,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2940 mg/kg/4W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
ENVRAL 49,93,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42380 mg/kg/49D- intermittentEar: Change in cochlear structure or function

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 10,525,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 27645 mg/kg/3W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TOXID9 5,62,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 162 gm/kg/13W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-371,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7805 mg/kg/2W- intermittentEar: Change in cochlear structure or functionARTODN 79,346,2005
skin/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 217 mg/kg/2D- continuousSkin: After topical application: Primary irritationVCVGH* -,148,1990
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10500 mg/kg/7D- intermittentEar: Change in cochlear structure or function

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NTOTDY 8,103,1986

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 20 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 47,79,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal No EvidenceIMEMDT 71,829,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 47,79,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,829,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group3IMEMDT 71,829,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEHLAU 22,373,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 11,549,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 47,75,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 11(5),549,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJACTDZ 6(1),77,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTIHEEC 4,49,1988
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTOTDY 3,407,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTCTDW 38,37,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,197,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 128,85,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 138,51,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 22,196,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,202,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAAPSJ* 8,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 29,425,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,215,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,313,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,683,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 181,133,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,101,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,241,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAIRMJ* 20,8,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 15,711,1997
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNCLNA* 16,503,1998
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 18,215,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,397,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,485,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,239,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,617,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,689,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,711,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,727,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,747,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,753,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 32,910,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 26,81,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 31,603,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 33,911,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,27,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,231,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 198,93,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 199,203,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 762,76,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 58,252,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,27,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 266,345,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,73,I2
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,58,I2
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,92,I2

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 100 ppm (375 mg/m3) (skin)DTLWS* 3,29,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 50 ppm (191 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (574 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 50 ppm (190 mg/m3);KZW 100 ppm (380 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 50 ppm (192 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 100 ppm (384 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 25 ppm (94 mg/m3), skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 192 mg/m3 (50 ppm);short term exposure limit 384 mg/m3 (100 ppm), skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 25 ppm (81 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 100 ppm (380 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 100 ppm (375 mg/m3), VLE 150 ppm (550 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 50 ppm (190 mg/m3), skin, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 190 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 760 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 25 ppm (94 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (188 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 50 ppm (188 mg/m3), skin, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 100 ppm (375 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (560 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 50 ppm (188 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 50 ppm (188 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 25 ppm (94 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 50 ppm (188 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 100 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 350 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 50 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 150 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 100 ppm (400 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 50 ppm (190 mg/m3), KZG-week 200 ppm (760 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 200 ppm, short term exposure limit 300 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 150 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 100 ppm (375 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 200 ppm (750 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 50 ppm (191 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 100 ppm (384 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 200 ppm (750 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 200 ppm (750 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 200 ppm;ceiling concentration 300;Pk 500/10MCFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 200 ppm (750 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO TOLUENE-air10H time-weighted average 100 ppm;short term exposure limit 150 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 73300; Number of Industries 399; Total Number of Facilities 128510; Number of Occupations 232; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2015881; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 391255
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 73300; Number of Industries 412; Total Number of Facilities 125516; Number of Occupations 206; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1589482

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/2000/108028)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);no evidence:mouse,rat
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, aromatic, 1501
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, BP 36-126 degree C, 1500
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Toluene (passive), 4000
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Toluene in blood, 8002
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #111
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