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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Titanium oxide

RTECS #

XR2275000

CAS #

13463-67-7; 1309-63-3

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

79.90

Molecular Formula

O2Ti

Synonyms

1700 White
A-Fil Cream
Atlas white titanium dioxide
Austiox R-CR 3
Bayertitan
Baytitan
Brookite
C.I. 77891
C.I. Pigment White 6
Calcotone White T
Cosmetic White C47-5175
Cosmetic White C47-9623
C-Weiss 7 (German)
E 171
Flamenco
Hombitan
Horse Head A-410
Horse Head A-420
Horse Head R-710
KH 360
Kronos
Kronos titanium dioxide
Levanox White RKB
NCI-C04240
Pigment White 6
Rayox
Runa RH20
Rutiox CR
Tichlor
Tiofine
Tiona T.D.
Tioxide
Tipaque
Ti-Pure
Titafrance
Titan White
Titandioxid (Swedish)
Titanium dioxide
Titanium dioxide (ACGIH:OSHA)
Titanium peroxide
Titanox
Titanox 2010
Trioxide(S)
Tronox
Unitane
Unitane O-110
Unitane O-220
Unitane OR-150
Unitane OR-340
Unitane OR-342
Unitane OR-350
Unitane OR-540
Unitane OR-640
Zopaque

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
skin /human 300 µg/3D- intermittent mild85DKA8 -,127,1977

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse280 mg/kg/7D- intermittentMUREAV 726,8,2011
DNA Damagelung/human15 µg/well/72HTIVIEQ 28,866,2014
DNA Damageoral/mouse280 mg/kg/7D- intermittentMUREAV 726,8,2011
DNA Damagelung/human100 µg/plateEMS37* -,444,2006
DNA Damagelung/human20 µg/disk/4HTOLED5 188,112,2009
DNA inhibitionlung/hamster500 mg/LTIVIEQ 1,71,1987
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse3 gm/kg/3D-continuousEMMUEG 21,160,1993
micronucleus testovary/hamster5 µmol/LMUREAV 414,15,1998
micronucleus testoral/mouse280 mg/kg/7D- intermittentMUREAV 726,8,2011
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human5 µmol/L/72HJAPTO* 28,658,2008
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human2 µmol/L/72HJAPTO* 28,658,2008
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster1 µmol/LMUREAV 414,15,1998

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXAPA9 79,179,1985
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/18H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
INHTE5 7,533,1995
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NCIUS* PH43-64-886
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 260 mg/kg/84W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NCIUS* PH43-64-886

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 62 mg/mL/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.NETOX* 48,77,2015
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 125 mg/mL/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)NETOX* 48,77,2015
In Vitro/jahInhibitor Concentration Low: 250 mg/mL/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)NETOX* 48,77,2015
In Vitro/jahInhibitor Concentration Low: 125 mg/mL/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.NETOX* 48,77,2015
In Vitro/Mouse, macrophage Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >1000 mg/L/17HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 1,77,1987
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TOLED5 199,269,2010
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,269,2010
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 44,213,2005
intratracheal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgTumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strainsTOLED5 142,71,2003
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.25 mg/kgVascular: Regional or general arteriolar constriction

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOXID9 44,294,2005
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 66,118,2002
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 66,353,2002
intratracheal/rat Lethal dose: >100 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
INHEAO 35,61,1997
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
EPASR* #86940001000,1994

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/hamster lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchiTOXID9 54,13,2000
inhalation/hamster lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 78,382,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchiINHTE5 12(Suppl 3),275,2000
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 60,195,2001
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 78,382,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/6H/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TXAPA9 145,10,1997
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchiTOXID9 54,13,2000
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 60,195,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 274 mg/m3/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 186,152,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/10W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
FCTOD7 93,20,2016

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 10 mg/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 47,307,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 93,275,2010
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 47,307,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 93,275,2010
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 47,307,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 93,275,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 133,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,223,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,194,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 171,99,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,861,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,177,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,241,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 21,225,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,239,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,185,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,72,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,91,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 30,67,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 763,181,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 91,42,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 32,203,2017

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARDNUISANCE PARTICULATESDTLWS* 3,29,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 15 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 5 mg/m3;KZW 10 mg/m3, resp, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 6 mg(Ti)/m3, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 10 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 6 mg(Ti)/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 1 mg/m3 (resp. dust), 4 mg/m3 (total dust), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 10 mg(Ti)/m3;short term exposure limit 20 mg(Ti)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (inspirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg(Ti)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 30 mg(Ti)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (total dust), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 3 mg/m3, resp, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 10 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 15 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (inhal. dust), OCT2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 4 mg/m3 (resp. dust), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dustCFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 15 mg/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dustCFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, respirable fractionCFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dustCFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE-airCarcinogen lowest feasible concentrationNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code M0913; Number of Industries 425; Total Number of Facilities 167223; Number of Occupations 246; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2749569; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 540849
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code M0913; Number of Industries 112; Total Number of Facilities 8751; Number of Occupations 78; Total Number of Employees Exposed 117618

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Cell transform.-SA7/SHE
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (feed);no evidence:mouse,ratNCITR* NCI-TR-97,1979
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements by ICP, 7300
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