Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Styrene

RTECS #

WL3675000

CAS #

100-42-5; 79637-11-9

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

104.16

Molecular Formula

C8H8

Synonyms

Benzene, vinyl-
Cinnamene
Ethenylbenzene
Ethylene, phenyl-
NCI-C02200
Phenethylene
Phenylethene
Phenylethylene (OSHA)
Stirolo (Italian)
Styreen (Dutch)
Styren (Czech)
Styrene (OSHA)
Styrene, monomer
Styrene, monomer (ACGIH)
Styrol (German)
Styrole
Styrolene
Vinyl benzene (OSHA)
Vinylbenzen (Czech)
Vinylbenzene
Vinylbenzol

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /human 50 ppm mildENTOX* -,105,2005
eye /rabbit 100 mg severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye /rabbit 100 mg/24H moderate85JCAE -,32,1986
skin /human 500 mg rinseINMEAF 17,199,1948
skin /rabbit 500 mg open irritation test mildUCDS** 12/13/1963
skin /rabbit 100% moderateAMIHAB 14,387,1956

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
body fluid assaylymphocyte/human300 mg/kgEMMUEG 17,27,1991
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/human7500 ppb/8H/5D- intermittentHEREAY 100,87,1984
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human300 ppm/72HMUREAV 58,277,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat300 ppm/8W- intermittentTOLED5 1,315,1978
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster100 mg/LATSUDG 4,41,1980
Cytogenetic Analysismultiple/human20 ppm/8Y- intermittentMUREAV 537,131,2003
DNA adductinhalation/mouse1500 µg/L/21D- intermittentTXAPA9 210,1,2006
DNA adductinhalation/mouse600 µg/L/10D- intermittentTOLED5 184,33,2009
DNA adductinhalation/human107.4 µg/L/4Y- intermittentTOLED5 190,41,2009
DNA Damageinhalation/human107.4 µg/L/4Y- intermittentTOLED5 190,41,2009
DNA Damageinhalation/human46.8 ppm/8.3YTOLED5 185,9,2009
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse600 mg/kgTXCYAC 264,171,2009
DNA Damageinhalation/human36.8 ppm/8.5Y- intermittentEMMUEG 41,243,2003
DNA Damageleukocyte/human5 mmol/L/30MTXCYAC 186,131,2003
DNA Damageinhalation/mouse1500 mg/m3/7D- intermittentCBINA8 137,213,2001
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse10 mmol/kgCALEDQ 21,9,1983
DNA Damageliver/rat3 mmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human28 mmol/LMUREAV 93,447,1982
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1 mmol/LBSIBAC 59,233,1983
host-mediated assaySaccharomyes cerevisiae/mouse1 gm/kgMUREAV 40,317,1976
host-mediated assaySchizosaccharomyces pombe/mouse1 gm/kgMUREAV 40,317,1976
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse250 mg/kgTOLED5 8,247,1981
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse1500 mg/m3/7D- intermittentCBINA8 137,213,2001
morphological transformembryo/rat145 µg/plateJJATDK 1,190,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 µmol/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 56,147,1977
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)BSIBAC 59,233,1983
mutation in microorganismslung/hamster240 µmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step)CBINA8 39,57,1982
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/human1204 mg/m3/5Y- intermittentMUREAV 73,387,1980
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 µmol/LEMMUEG 22,85,1993
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse450 mg/kgMUREAV 271,49,1992
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/mouse125 ppm/4D- intermittentAPTOD9 19,A34,1980
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/rat750 mg/kgMUREAV 271,49,1992
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/rat40 gm/kg/8W- intermittentMUREAV 271,49,1992
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse3500 mg/kg/7W- intermittentMUREAV 271,49,1992
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat3800 µmol/LMUREAV 221,263,1989
Unscheduled DNA Synthesislymphocyte/human100 µmol/LCRNGDP 3,681,1982

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 293 ppm/6H (7-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNETEEC 17,121,1995
inhalation/rat 1500 µg/m3/24H (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
GISAAA 39(11),65,1974
inhalation/rat 5 mg/m3/24H (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
GISAAA 39(11),65,1974
inhalation/rat 1500 µg/m3/24H (1-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
GISAAA 39(11),65,1974
inhalation/rat 50 ppm/6H (7-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NEZAAQ 47,227,1992
inhalation/mouse 500 ppm/6H (6-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)APTOA6 47,127,1980
inhalation/hamster 1000 ppm/6H (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)APTOA6 47,127,1980
oral/rat 8600 mg/kg (1-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNTOTDY 7,23,1985
oral/rat 5575 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
FAATDF 5,855,1985
oral/rat 4 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)JEBIDP 11,73,1990
oral/rat 11470 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTJADAB 42,651,1990

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTIS** OTS0558579-2
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6H/98W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6H/98W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6H/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/4H/5D/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
ANYAA9 534,203,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1520 mg/kg/43W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
KHZDAN 25,464,1982

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 210,353,2012
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 gm/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 289,28,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µg/m3/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXCYAC 289,28,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 gm/L/1HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: PhosphokinaseTXCYAC 289,28,2011
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 12 gm/m3/14HEye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Antipsychotic
JIHTAB 24,295,1942
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 3 gm/m3TPKVAL 4,52,1962
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 3.4 gm/m3/3HTPKVAL 4,52,1962
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 2 gm/m3/8HTPKVAL 4,52,1962
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/1HEye: Conjunctiva irritationVCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 376 ppm/25MBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsVCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 376 ppm/50MGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 376 ppm/60MBehavioral: HeadacheVCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/4HBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,193,1990
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 10000 ppm/30M29ZWAE -,77,1968
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppmOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Other eye effects
AMIHAB 14,387,1956
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 20 µg/m3Eye: Other eye effectsGISAAA 26(8),11,1961
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 376 ppm/1HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
AEHLAU 16,656,1968
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/8HKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTXAPA9 189,160,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 3 gm/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
TPKVAL 4,52,1962
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 21000 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9500 mg/m3/4HVCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4940 ppm/2HENTOX* ,105,2005
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 4000 ppm/4HUCDS** 12/13/1963
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 40000 mg/m3/2HEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3 gm/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughTPKVAL 4,52,1962
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 6450 mg/m3/5HGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glandsINHTE5 16,209,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 11800 mg/m3/4HVCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5460 mg/m3/1HEye: Lacrimation

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 40000 mg/m3/2HEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,192,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6450 mg/m3/5HGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glandsINHTE5 16,209,2004
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2770 ppm/4HENTOX* ,105,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 183,28,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TXCYAC 294,104,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 660 mg/kgARZNAD 19,617,1969
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 150,335,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 227,217,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 898 mg/kgENVRAL 40,411,1986
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 90 mg/kgARZNAD 19,617,1969
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): >1500 mg/kgGISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 316 mg/kgNCILB* NCI-E-C-72-3252,1973
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2650 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Liver: Other changes
SRTCAC 36(1-4),10,1989
oral/rat lethal dose (10 percent kill): 5 mL/kgVCVGH* -,192,1990
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5000 mg/kgENTOX* ,105,2005
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 26.4 mg/kgSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritative

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 255,100,2009
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 -,194,2009

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 6 gm/m3/8H/26W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 24,295,1942
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 40 ppm/6H/3D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsCBINA8 137,185,2001
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/6H/104W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6H/98W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6H/52W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesJAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6H/78W- intermittentOlfaction: Change in olfactory nerveJAPTO* 21,185,2001
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: PhosphatasesFCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/90D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 12,397,1992
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FAATDF 20,325,1993
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FAATDF 20,325,1993
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6H/22D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOSCF2 48,123,1999
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 mg/m3/3D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainARTODN 77,56,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 mg/m3/6D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldARTODN 77,56,2003
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 mg/m3/4H/20D- intermittentEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasiaVCVGH* -,195,1990
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3/60D- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TPKVAL 4,52,1962
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/4H/17W- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
GISAAA 35(8),112,1970
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 mg/m3/4H/20D- intermittentEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasiaVCVGH* -,195,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/6H/4D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6H/2D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6H/3D- intermittentEye: Ptosis

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
FCTOD7 42,1655,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/4W- intermittentEar: Change in acuity

Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function
ARTODN 76,40,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Fluid intake
FAATDF 35,152,1997
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/2W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
JTEHD6 52,63,1997
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/24H/70D- continuousBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 26(8),11,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 ppm/8H/32W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ENVRAL 62,148,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 6 gm/m3/8H/26W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Other eye effects
JIHTAB 24,295,1942
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 140.2 ppm/8H/10D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in gonadotropinsARTODN 79,653,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2150 mg/m3/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic
INHTE5 16,209,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/8H/10D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changesARTODN 79,653,2006
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
ARTODN 80,703,2006
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 mg/m3/4H/6W- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transportVCVGH* -,195,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentEar: Change in acuity

Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function
NETEEC 25,39,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/4W- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countTOLED5 211,211,2012
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentEar: Change in cochlear structure or functionNETEEC 44,113,2014
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/6H/20D- intermittentEar: Change in cochlear structure or function

Ear: Tumors
NETEEC 23,71,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTXCYAC 259,149,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/7W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JTSCDR 14,1,1989
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 gm/kg/10D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTOLED5 45,271,1989
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 337 gm/kg/76W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
NTIS** OTS0546563
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 3200 mg/kg/4W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
IJEBA6 32,68,1994
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/4W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
IJEBA6 32,68,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 17200 mg/kg/14W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JJATDK 2,219,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3200 mg/kg/4W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
IJEBA6 32,68,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 23190 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar constriction

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Monoamine oxidase
TOLED5 7,47,1980
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg/2Y- continuousBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 5,855,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3150 mg/kg/7D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
APTOA6 52,47,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12000 mg/kg/60D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
IJEBA6 30,399,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8822 mg/kg/2W- intermittentEar: Change in cochlear structure or function

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ARTODN 79,346,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20400 mg/kg/60D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 63,43,1989
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3500 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
RCOCB8 19,109,1978

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 20 ppm;short term exposure limit 40 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 19,231,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 60,233,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 82,437,2002
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 19,231,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 60,233,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 82,437,2002
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 60,233,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 82,437,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVHPAZ 11,115,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCBINA8 22,117,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIGAYAY 106,105,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 138,1,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 138,75,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRTOPDW 35,308,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 589,158,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 589,67,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 45,271,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,105,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 5,1,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 8,95,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBDERB* 77,110,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,273,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,215,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,339,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 254,1,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,3,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,241,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,80,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 82,437,
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,107,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,239,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,727,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,747,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,191,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,33,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,231,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,1,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 736,122,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 49,1877,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,375,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,27,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 762,76,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 30,89,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 64,258,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,27,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,12,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,73,I2
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,92,I2

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,235,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 50 ppm (213 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 100 ppm (426 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 20 ppm (85 mg/m3);KZW 80 ppm (340 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 50 ppm (216 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 100 ppm (432 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKceiling concentration 25 ppm (105 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm (86 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 100 ppm (430 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 50 ppm (215 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 20 ppm (86 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 50 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 50 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDshort term exposure limit 25 ppm (105 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 20 ppm (85 mg/m3), skin, 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 50 ppm (215 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 100 ppm (425 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 50 ppm (215 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 100 ppm (425 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 50 ppm (213 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 100 ppm (426 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 25 ppm (105 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 20 ppm (85 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 40 ppm (170 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 50 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 200 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 30 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 20 ppm (90 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 20 ppm (85 mg/m3), KZG-week 40 ppm (170 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 100 ppm, short term exposure limit 200 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 107 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 100 ppm (430 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 250 ppm (1080 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 100 ppm;ceiling concentration 200;Pk 600/5M/3HCFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 100 ppm (420 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO STYRENE-air10H time-weighted average 50 ppm;short term exposure limit 100 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 70130; Number of Industries 154; Total Number of Facilities 24702; Number of Occupations 115; Total Number of Employees Exposed 333212; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 86902
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 70130; Number of Industries 137; Total Number of Facilities 16394; Number of Occupations 117; Total Number of Employees Exposed 292018

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/93/110849/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: S pombe-forward mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro human lymphocyte micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0393-8756;8EHQ-0294-8756
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-8996
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (gavage);inadequate studies:mouse,ratNCITR* NCI-TR-185,1979
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (gavage);inadequate studies:mouse,ratNCITR* NCI-TR-170,1979
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, aromatic, 1501
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #89
TOP