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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Propane, 1-chloro-2,3-epoxy-

RTECS #

TX4900000

CAS #

106-89-8

Updated

June 2017

Molecular Weight

92.53

Molecular Formula

C3H5ClO

Synonyms

(Chloromethyl)ethylene oxide
(DL)-alpha-Epichlorohydrin
1,2-Epoxy-3-chloropropane
1-Chloor-2,3-epoxy-propaan (Dutch)
1-Chlor-2,3-epoxy-propan (German)
1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane
1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (OSHA)
1-Cloro-2,3-epossipropano (Italian)
2-(Chloromethyl)oxirane
2,3-Epoxypropyl chloride
3-Chloro-1,2-epoxypropane
3-Chloro-1,2-propane oxide
3-Chloro-1,2-propylene oxide
alpha-Epichlorohydrin
Chloromethyloxirane
Chloropropylene oxide
ECH
Epichloorhydrine (Dutch)
Epichlorhydrin
Epichlorhydrine (French)
Epichlorohydrin
epi-Chlorohydrin
Epichlorohydrin (ACGIH:OSHA)
Epichlorohydryna (Polish)
Epichlorophydrin
Epicloridrina (Italian)
gamma-Chloropropylene oxide
Glycerol epichlorhydrin
Oxirane, (chloromethyl)-
Oxirane, 2-(chloromethyl)
RCRA waste number U041
Skekhg

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye /rabbit 100 mg/24H moderate85JCAE -,769,1986
skin /rabbit 10 mg/24H open irritation testJIHTAB 30,63,1948
skin /woman 1%CODEDG 61,47,2009

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human10 µmol/L/24HSTEVA8 11,223,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human1 µmol/LMUREAV 34,279,1976
Cytogenetic Analysisliver/rat10 mg/LMUREAV 64,329,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse5 mg/kgSTEVA8 11,223,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse20 mg/kgSTEVA8 11,223,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse5 mg/m3MUREAV 85,287,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster15 mg/LMUTAEX 4,432,1989
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster47 mg/LGMCRDC 27,95,1981
DNA Damagemammary gland/human2.8 mg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA Damageliver/rat200 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 629,49,2007
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse1040 µmol/LMUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse140 mg/kgMUREAV 467,83,2000
DNA Damageliver/rat300 µmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA Damage/Escherichia coli1 µmol/LARTODN 46,277,1980
DNA Damage/Bacillus subtilis20 µL/discPMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human2700 µmol/LMUREAV 92,427,1982
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human5 mmol/LTUMOAB 69,191,1983
DNA repair/Escherichia coli4 µg/wellMUREAV 133,161,1984
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis997 mmol/L37ATAD -,155,1977
DNA repair/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,502,1981
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae65 mmol/LIJEBA6 18,1337,1980
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse50 mg/kgBIZNAT 95,451,1976
host-mediated assayEscherichia coli/mouse180 mg/kgMUREAV 272,161,1992
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse120 mg/kg/16D- intermittent54DEAI -,175,1984
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species10800 nmol/LMUTAEX 4,17,1989
morphological transformkidney/hamster25 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,638,1981
morphological transformembryo/mouse30 mg/L/10DMUREAV 702,100,2010
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster30 mg/LMUREAV 136,137,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse7500 µg/LPMRSDJ 1,580,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/human500 µmol/LTUMOAB 69,191,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Schizosaccharomyces pombe21 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)ADWMAX -,193,1962
mutation in microorganisms/Schizosaccharomyces pombe800 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 109,41,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Neurospora crassa150 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)STEVA8 11,223,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae40 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,414,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Klebsiella pneumoniae200 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 89,269,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium33 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 172,105,1986
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli1 µL/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,387,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 µL/plate (-enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 46,2498,2008
other mutation test systems/Escherichia coli195 nmol/tubeMUREAV 147,79,1985
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium60 mg/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systems/Bacillus subtilis1 mole/L37ATAD -,155,1977
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster5100 µmol/LEVSRBT 24,175,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,468,1981
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 nmol/LCARYAB 34,261,1981
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse5500 µg/kgPMRSDJ 1,673,1981
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster33 µL/LPMRSDJ 1,551,1981
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster100 mg/LCNREA8 44,3270,1984
sperm morphologyinhalation/mouse5 mg/m3MUREAV 85,287,1981
sperm morphologyoral/rat50 mg/kgARTODN 53,71,1983
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat50 mg/kgCRNGDP 10,1425,1989
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisfibroblast/human32 µg/LPMRSDJ 1,528,1981
Unscheduled DNA Synthesislymphocyte/human500 µmol/LTUMOAB 69,191,1983

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 50 ppm/6H (50D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)TXAPA9 68,415,1983
inhalation/rat 100 ppm/7H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
NTIS** OTS0545225
inhalation/rabbit 100 ppm/7H (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
NTIS** OTS0545225
oral/mouse 1200 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)JTEHD6 9,87,1982
oral/rat 180 mg/kg (12D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)NATUAS 226,87,1970
oral/rat 25 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)ARTODN 53,71,1983
oral/rat 1050 mg/kg (21D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
FAATDF 13,16,1989
oral/rat 288 mg/kg (23D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)JOAND3 12,54,1991
subcutaneous/rat 75 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TXAPA9 70,67,1983

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6H/30D- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
JJIND8 65,751,1980
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6H/6W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
PAACA3 21,106,1980
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 100 ppmTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CHWKA9 123(24),25,1978
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 30 ppm/6H/57W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion
JJIND8 65,751,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/8W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXAPA9 82,19,1986
oral/rat toxic dose: 36 gm/kg/81W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
GANNA2 71,922,1980
oral/rat toxic dose: 85050 mg/kg/81W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NAIZAM 32,270,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 42525 mg/kg/81W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NAIZAM 32,270,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 5150 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Endocrine: Tumors
TXCYAC 36,325,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg/81W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
GANNA2 71,922,1980
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 2760 mg/kg/69W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 53,695,1974
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 720 mg/kg/18W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 48,1431,1972
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 19 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
RARSAM 3,193,1963

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 205 µmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 28,209,2014
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/2HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes34ZIAG -,240,1969
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppmOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Other eye effects
29ZWAE -,108,1968
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTPKVAL 7,76,1965
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3 gm/m3/2HGastrointestinal: Necrotic changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 5.25 gm/m3/2HSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, otherTPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 3.25 gm/m3/2HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 72 gm/m3/9MJBMRBG 8,11,1974
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 3 gm/m3Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes
TPKVAL 7,76,1965
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 3 gm/m3Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
TPKVAL 7,76,1965
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3 gm/m3/2HBrain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Behavioral: Ataxia

Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 3.25 gm/m3/2HEye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Eye: Lacrimation

Eye: Corneal damage
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 250 ppm/8HENTOX* -,228,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.007 gm/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TPKVAL 12,33,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.35 gm/m3/4HCardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
TPKVAL 12,33,1971
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 118 mg/kgJPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 170 mg/kgJPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 160 mg/kgJPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 113 mg/kgJPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 154 mg/kgNPIRI* 1,41,1974
ocular/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 100 pphEye: Conjunctiva irritationTPKVAL 7,76,1965
ocular/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 100 pphEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Eye: Corneal damage
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 280 mg/kgGISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kgTPKVAL 7,76,1965
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 236 mg/kgENTOX* -,228,2005
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 195 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 345 mg/kgGISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 90 mg/kgENTOX* -,228,2005
skin/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kg85GMAT -,64,1982
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 515 mg/kgWolMA# 18JAN1977
skin/rat lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
UCPHAQ 2,69,1941
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (70 percent kill): 250 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increasedAMPMAR 28,505,1967

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6H/90D- intermittentOlfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Liver: Other changes
NTIS** OTS0555021
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3/2W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.21 gm/m3/45D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in spleen

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.21 gm/m3/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Vascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 gm/m3/182D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 gm/m3/61D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 gm/m3/91D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 gm/m3/197D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 170 mg/m3/3H/17W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3/2W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/24H/14W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Blood: Other changes
GISAAA 31(9),7,1966
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/2H/5W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
HOCHE8 12,144,1994
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/16D- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Microcytosis with or without anemia
NTIS** OTS0542017
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 341 µg/kg/30D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2045 µg/kg/12W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
JPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/wild bird lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldIJEBA6 37,774,1999
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 4872 mg/kg/9W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
GISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/9W- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
GISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 190 mg/kg/10D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
DCTODJ 19,41,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1218 mg/kg/9W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
GISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/26W- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningGISAAA 33(1),46,1968
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/9D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes
WDZAEK 6,270,1992

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 11,131,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 71,603,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMSUDL 7,202,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,603,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2AIMEMDT 71,603,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,228,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,180,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,76,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 751,49,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,98,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (7.6 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 3 ppm (12 mg/m3);KZW 12 ppm (48 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (2 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVLE 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), C2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 1.9 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), carc, skin, sen, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN2A carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 1.5 ppm (5.8 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 8 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 1 ppm (4 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), carc 2, skin, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 1.9 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 1.5 ppm (5.8 mg/m3), carc, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO EPICHLOROHYDRIN-airCarcinogen lowest feasible concentrationNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 29010; Number of Industries 75; Total Number of Facilities 4249; Number of Occupations 87; Total Number of Employees Exposed 80170; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 14921
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 29010; Number of Industries 40; Total Number of Facilities 2004; Number of Occupations 58; Total Number of Employees Exposed 41380

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-human; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal; S pombe-forward mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: E coli polA without S9; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: N crassa-forward mutation; N crassa-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S pombe-reversion
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Epichlorohydrin, 1010
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 30, 1978
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
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