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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Formamide, N,N-dimethyl-

RTECS #

LQ2100000

CAS #

68-12-2

Updated

July 2016

Molecular Weight

73.11

Molecular Formula

C3H7NO

Synonyms

Dimethyl formamide
Dimethylamid kyseliny mravenci (Czech)
Dimethylformamid (German)
Dimethylformamide
Dimethylformamide (ACGIH:OSHA)
Dimetilformamide (Italian)
Dimetylformamidu (Czech)
DMF
DMFA
Dwumetyloformamid (Polish)
N,N-Dimethyl formamide
N,N-Dimethylformamide
N,N-Dimethylmethanamide
NCI-C60913
N-Formyldimethylamine
NSC 5356
U-4224

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg rinse severeDCTODJ 9,147,1986
eye /rabbit 100% rinse severeCRTXB2 31,139,2001
skin /human 100%/24H mildBJIMAG 13,51,1956
skin /woman 0.1%CRTXB2 31,139,2001

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/human12300 µg/m3/1YZHYGAM 31,366,1985
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human100 nmol/LCHPUA4 31,548,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse40 µmol/kgCHPUA4 31,548,1981
DNA repair/Saccharomyes cerevisiae300 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,502,1981
Dominant Lethal Testinhalation/rat10700 µg/m3TPKVAL 15,21,1979
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse4250 µg/kgCHPUA4 31,548,1981
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse1 mg/kgCRTXB2 31,139,2001
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse3 mg/kg/3D- intermittentCRTXB2 31,139,2001
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse500 µg/kg/24HDOYADI 8,27,1987
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse5 gm/LEMMUEG 11,91,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium600 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,343,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae25 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,468,1981

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 800 ppm/6H (13W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle
NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation/rat 50 ppm/6H (13W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation/rat 4 mg/m3/4H (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TPKVAL 14,32,1975
inhalation/rat 600 mg/m3/24H (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTPKVAL 13,75,1973
inhalation/rat 287 ppm/6H (0-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
FCTOD7 29,193,1991
inhalation/rat 300 ppm/6H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)DCTODJ 15,1,1992
inhalation/mouse 200 ppm/6H (13W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle
NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation/rabbit 450 ppm/6H (7-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
FCTOD7 29,193,1991
inhalation/rabbit 450 ppm/8H (7-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system
NTIS** OTS0535254
inhalation/rat 4 mg/m3 (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TPKVAL 14,32,1975
inhalation/rat 4 mg/m3 (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TPKVAL 14,32,1975
inhalation/rat 10 mg/m3 (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTPKVAL 14,32,1975
inhalation/rat 0.6 gm/m3 (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TPKVAL 13,75,1973
inhalation/rat 0.05 gm/m3 (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TPKVAL 13,75,1973
inhalation/rat 10.7 mg/m3 (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathTPKVAL 15,21,1979
inhalation/rat 172 ppm (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
HPV301 -,-,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse 2100 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
DEGEA3 30,455,1975
intraperitoneal/mouse 15120 mg/kg (1-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
DEGEA3 30,455,1975
oral/rabbit 2600 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ARZNAD 30,1557,1980
oral/rabbit 2600 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)ARZNAD 30,1557,1980
oral/rat 5330 µL/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** OTS0521149
oral/rat 5030 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
FCTOD7 29,193,1991
oral/mouse 1820 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)FCTOD7 29,193,1991
oral/rat 1500 mg/kg (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)FAATDF 39,33,1997
oral/rat 3000 µg/kg (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemFAATDF 39,33,1997
oral/rat 1500 mg/kg (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
HPV301 -,-,2004
oral/rabbit 2470 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
HPV301 -,-,2004
skin/rabbit 5200 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusFCTOD7 29,193,1991
skin/rat 3600 mg/kg (11-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathTXAPA9 41,35,1977
skin/rat 7552 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
FCTOD7 29,193,1991
skin/rat 20 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
JJATDK 10,333,1990
skin/rat 20 gm/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
JJATDK 10,333,1990

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/6H/104W- intermittentLiver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria
JTSCDR 34,53,2009
multiple/rat lowest published toxic dose: 94952 mg/kg/104W- continuousLiver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria
JTSCDR 34,53,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32032 mg/kg/104W- continuousLiver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria
JTSCDR 34,53,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 59696 mg/kg/104W- continuousLiver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria
JTSCDR 34,53,2009

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (5 percent kill): >25000 mg/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 27,857,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 196 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 22200 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 20300 mg/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 374 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 351 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 696 gm/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 711 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 59 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 18000 mg/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 7910 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 5070 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 43 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,174,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 14300 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 45.4 mmol/L/44HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1416,2013
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 17900 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/75MLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Other changes
TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 130 mg/m3/4HLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10 gm/m3TPKVAL 4,167,1962
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 12 gm/m3/2HBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Eye: Lacrimation

Eye: Change in extra- ocular muscles
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 17 gm/m3/2HBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 4 gm/m3/2HOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9.4 gm/m3/2HBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2 gm/m3/2HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9.4 gm/m3Blood: Changes in spleenTPKVAL 11,86,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1.2 gm/m3Blood: Methemoglobinemia- CarboxhemoglobinemiaTPKVAL 11,86,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1.2 gm/m3/2HBrain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3421 ppm/1HCRTXB2 31,139,2001
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3421 ppm/3HCRTXB2 31,139,2001
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1948 ppm/4HCRTXB2 31,139,2001
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 5000 ppm/6HUSXXAM #5122301
intramuscular/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3900 mg/kgARZNAD 15,618,1965
intraperitoneal/cat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
BJIMAG 13,51,1956
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 4 gm/kgLiver: Fatty liver degenerationAIHAAP 35,21,1974
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 650 mg/kgCNCRA6 30,9,1963
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
FTRPAE 81,1246,2010
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
BJIMAG 13,51,1956
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kgCRTXB2 31,139,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 gm/kgCRTXB2 31,139,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1400 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BJIMAG 13,51,1956
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 470 mg/kgARZNAD 15,618,1965
intravenous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1050 mg/kgARZNAD 15,618,1965
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2500 mg/kgARZNAD 15,618,1965
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1800 mg/kgARZNAD 15,618,1965
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 gm/kgZEKBAI 69,103,1967
ocular/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 25 pphEye: Lacrimation

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 2000 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2900 mg/kgNTIS** OTS0521148
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgTPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 1250 mg/kgTPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral/mouse lethal dose (20 percent kill): 2500 mg/kgLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3750 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral/mouse lethal dose (70 percent kill): 4500 mg/kgLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5 gm/kgNTIS** OTS0520699
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2000 mg/kgCBINA8 148,1,2004
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4000 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Eye: Corneal damage

Eye: Other eye effects
TPKVAL 11,86,1969
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4000 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Vascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 2000 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgTPKVAL 1,54,1961
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4720 mg/kgAIHAAP 30,470,1969
skin/rat Lethal dose: >3160 mg/kgNTIS** OTS0516779
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >3.2 gm/kgCRTXB2 31,139,2001
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 1000 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3500 mg/kgTPKVAL 1,54,1961
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 2000 mg/kgBehavioral: Tetany

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 3000 mg/kgLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
subcutaneous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 1000 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3800 mg/kgARZNAD 15,618,1965
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >3 gm/kgARZNAD 18,645,1968
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1002 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
ARTODN 68,291,1994

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 130 mg/m3/4D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuriaTPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 130 mg/m3/8D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/8D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 130 mg/m3/27D- intermittentVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic sectionTPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/13W- continuousLiver: Other changesHPV301 -,,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/6H/104W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJTSCDR 34,53,2009
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
JTSCDR 33,327,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTSCDR 33,327,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10.7 mg/m3/17D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 15,21,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2.3 mg/m3/17D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTPKVAL 15,21,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10.7 mg/m3/20D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersTPKVAL 15,21,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightTOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/4D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: DehydrogenasesTOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.08 gm/m3/100D- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TPKVAL 11,86,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/4H/26W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)
GISAAA 23(5),31,1958
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 µg/m3/24H/60D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
GISAAA 27(4),3,1962
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2523 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldDCTODJ 9,147,1986
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 gm/m3/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 gm/m3/122D- intermittentVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 gm/m3/61D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTPKVAL 1,72,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 gm/m3/182D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTPKVAL 1,72,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 91 ppm/10D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weightHPV301 -,,2004
multiple/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10976 mg/kg/4W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 33,327,2008
multiple/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5628 mg/kg/4W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTSCDR 33,327,2008
multiple/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7392 mg/kg/4W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTSCDR 33,327,2008
multiple/rat lowest published toxic dose: 94952 mg/kg/104W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJTSCDR 34,53,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 525 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changesMUREAV 746,144,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32032 mg/kg/104W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJTSCDR 34,53,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2324 mg/kg/4W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
JTSCDR 33,327,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8176 mg/kg/4W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTSCDR 33,327,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4500 mg/kg/10D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
NTIS** OTS0572893
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9 mL/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
APJAAG 37,1879,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13 gm/kg/15W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 3,128,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5400 mg/kg/90D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
DCTODJ 9,147,1986
skin/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/2W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
DCTODJ 9,147,1986
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 gm/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 1,80,1961
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 1,80,1961

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 10 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 47,171,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 47,171,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,545,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal No EvidenceIMEMDT 71,545,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 71,545,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,683,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 47,1287,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 58,252,2015

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,90,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);KZW 40 ppm (120 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 30 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 120 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 20 ppm (60 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 60 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 15 ppm (45 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), KZG-week 20 ppm (60 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 15 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 20 ppm (61 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE-air10H time-weighted average 10 ppm (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 26560; Number of Industries 85; Total Number of Facilities 6209; Number of Occupations 93; Total Number of Employees Exposed 124683; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 16011
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 26560; Number of Industries 64; Total Number of Facilities 3115; Number of Occupations 71; Total Number of Employees Exposed 69191

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro UDS in rat liver
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: SHE-clonal assay; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Dimethylformamide, 2004
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-22, October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-66
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