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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-

RTECS #

KV9275000

CAS #

75-35-4

Updated

June 2017

Molecular Weight

96.94

Molecular Formula

C2H2Cl2

Synonyms

1,1-Dichloroethene
1,1-Dichloroethene (9CI)
1,1-Dichloroethylene
Chlorure de vinylidene (French)
Ethene, 1,1-dichloro-
NCI-C54262
RCRA waste number U078
VDC
Vinylidene chloride
Vinylidene chloride (ACGIH)
Vinylidene chloride (II)
Vinylidene dichloride
Vinylidine chloride

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster250 mg/LMUREAV 187,157,1987
DNA Damageinhalation/mouse50 ppmTXAPA9 53,357,1980
DNA Damage/Saccharomyes cerevisiae75 mmol/LMUREAV 206,209,1988
DNA Damageinhalation/rat10 ppmTXAPA9 53,357,1980
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae30 mmol/LMUREAV 89,179,1981
host-mediated assaySaccharomyes cerevisiae/mouse400 mg/kgMUREAV 89,179,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium20 µmol/L/3D (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 572,98,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium5 pph (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 57,141,1978
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium3 pph/2H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 58,183,1978
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli2500 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)BCPCA6 24,2013,1975
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae30 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 89,179,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae50 mmol/LMUREAV 206,209,1988
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans500 ppmMUREAV 266,117,1992
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster75 mg/LMUREAV 187,157,1987
specific locus testintraperitoneal/mouse64990 µmol/LMUREAV 608,29,2006
specific locus testlymphocyte/mouse160 ppm/48H-continuousEMMUEG 17,122,1991
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisinhalation/mouse50 ppmTXAPA9 53,357,1980
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/mouse200 mg/kgTXCYAC 36,199,1985

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 80 ppm/7H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTXAPA9 49,189,1979
inhalation/rat 55 ppm/6H (55D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)JTEHD6 3,965,1977
inhalation/rabbit 160 ppm/7H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TXAPA9 49,189,1979
oral/rat 200 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TXAPA9 49,189,1979

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/4H/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Blood: Leukemia
MELAAD 68,241,1977
inhalation/mouse toxic concentration: 55 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
JTEHD6 7,909,1981
inhalation/mouse toxic concentration: 55 ppm/6H/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
EVHPAZ 21,25,1977
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 220 mg/m3/40W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Angiosarcoma
VCVGH* -,432,1990
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 55 ppm/6H/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors
EVHPAZ 21,25,1977
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 150 ppm/4H/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
EVHPAZ 21,45,1977
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 55 ppm/6H/28W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
JTEHD6 7,909,1981
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 55 ppm/6H/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JTEHD6 4,15,1978
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 150 ppm/4H/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
MELAAD 68,241,1977
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4840 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
JJIND8 63,1433,1979

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 8000 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstructionVCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppmBehavioral: General anesthetic

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
CHINAG (11),463,1976
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 2000 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesVCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 40 ppm/4HENTOX* -,440,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10000 ppm/4HENTOX* -,440,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10000 mg/m3VCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 1300 mg/m3/4HVCVGH* -,430,1990
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6350 ppm/4HBehavioral: ComaTXAPA9 18,168,1971
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesJPETAB 297,1193,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TOXID9 44,467,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 78,402,2004
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 225 mg/kgQJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 5750 mg/kgQJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 194 mg/kgBJCAAI 37,411,1978
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kgNTIS** PB85-143766
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTOXID9 60,38,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CRTOEC 16,1306,2003
skin/rabbit Lethal dose: >2426 mg/kgNTIS** AD-A180-198
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 3700 mg/kgQJPPAL 7,205,1934
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response
TOXID9 72,194,2003
unreported route/rat lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kgVCVGH* -,430,1990

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 189 mg/m3/90D- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 189 mg/m3/90D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 189 mg/m3/90D- continuousLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 101 mg/m3/90D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/3H/16W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in spleen
VCVGH* -,433,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 143 mg/m3/6H/1Y- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Rigidity (includes catalepsy)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGH* -,432,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 158 mg/m3/6H/5W- intermittentLiver: Other changesVCVGH* -,432,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 189 mg/m3/90D- continuousLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/14D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-228,1982
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6500 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-228,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1300 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
JJATDK 3,90,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Hemorrhage

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-228,1982

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 5 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 39,195,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 71,1163,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 39,195,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,1163,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 71,1163,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 8,633,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTIS** ORNL/TIRC-77/3
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWVHTODE 22,31,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 539,77,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,440,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (79 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 2 ppm (8 mg/m3);KZW 8 ppm (32 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (80 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 8 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 32 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (80 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 20 ppm (80 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (79 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 50 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 80 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 50 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 100 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 10 ppm (40 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), KZG-week 4 ppm (16 mg/m3), carc 3, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 20 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 10 ppm (40 mg/m3), OCT2007

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE-airCarcinogen lowest feasible conc.NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 83011; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 97; Number of Occupations 13; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2679; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 291
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 83011; Number of Industries 22; Total Number of Facilities 879; Number of Occupations 23; Total Number of Employees Exposed 10947

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/95/100152/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Rodent dominant lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);no evidence:mouse,rat
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Vinylidene chloride, 1015
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 28, 1978
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #19
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