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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Disulfide, bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)

RTECS #

JO1225000

CAS #

97-77-8

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

296.56

Molecular Formula

C10H20N2S4

Synonyms

1,1'-Dithiobis(N,N-diethylthioformamide)
Abstensil
Abstinil
Abstinyl
Alcophobin
Antabus
Antabuse
Antaenyl
Antaethyl
Antalcol
Antetan
Antetil
Anti-ethyl
Antietil
Antikol
Antivitium
Aversan
Averzan
Bis((diethylamino)thioxomethyl)disulphide
Bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide
Bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide
Bis(N,N-diethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide
Bis(N,N-diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide
Contralin
Cronetal
Dicupral
Disulfiram
Disulfiram (ACGIH)
Disulfuram
Disulphuram
Dupon 4472
Dupont fungicide 4472
Ekagom TEDS
ENT 27,340
Ephorran
Espenal
Esperal
Etabus
Ethyl thiram
Ethyl thiurad
Ethyl tuads
Ethyl TUEX
Ethyldithiourame
Ethyldithiurame
Exhoran
Formamide, 1,1'-dithiobis(N,N-diethylthio-
HOCA
Krotenal
N,N,N',N'-Tetraethylthiuram disulphide
NCI-C02959
Nocbin
Noxal
NSC 190940
Refusal
Ro-Sulfiram
Stopetyl
Tenurid
Tenutex
TETD
Tetidis
Tetradin
Tetradine
Tetraethylthioperoxydicarbonic diamide
Tetraethylthiram disulphide
Tetraethylthiuram
Tetraethylthiuram disulfide
Tetraethylthiuram disulphide
Tetraetil
Teturam
Teturamin
Thiuram disulfide, tetraethyl-
Thiuram E
Thiuranide
USAF B-33

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 0.1 gm mildHPV407 -,-,2001

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human100 µmol/LCRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibitionembryo/mouse10 mg/LJJATDK 5,1,1985
DNA inhibitionembryo/chicken120 nmol/LBBACAQ 519,65,1978
morphological transformembryo/hamster20 µg/LMUREAV 356,85,1996
morphological transformoral/rat12600 mg/kg/6WCRNGDP 9,387,1988
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/mouse4100 µg/L (-enzymatic activation step)HPV407 ,,2001
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium25 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)CBINA8 49,329,1984
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium20 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)PCBRD2 141,407,1984
other mutation test systemsembryo/chicken120 nmol/LBBACAQ 519,65,1978
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster5 µmol/LSWEHDO 9(Suppl 2),27,1983
sister chromatid exchangeoral/mouse200 mg/kgFCTOD7 37,757,1999
specific locus testlymphocyte/mouse16 µg/LEMMUEG 17,196,1991

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 5 gm/kg (3-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
JRPFA4 39,375,1974
oral/rat 310 mg/kg (31D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTXAPA9 107,164,1991
oral/mouse 13200 mg/kg (15D prior to copulation/1-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)JJATDK 5,1,1985
oral/mouse 39200 mg/kg (7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)NTIS** PB86-197605
oral/rat 2800 mg/kg (14D male)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicFATOAO 48,86,1985
parenteral/rat 400 mg/kg (4-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
BEXBAN 93,107,1982
parenteral/rat 800 mg/kg (2D male/2D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
BEXBAN 93,107,1982
subcutaneous/mouse 1278 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
NTIS** PB223-160
subcutaneous/mouse 1278 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** PB223-160

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 35 gm/kg/78W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB223-159
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Tumors
NTIS** PB223-159

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Hamster, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 µmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
TXAPA9 248,210,2010
In Vitro/Hamster, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 248,210,2010
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 20 µmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1719,2013
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 75 mg/kgNTIS** AD691-490
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 248 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
JNPHAG 9,35,1978
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
34ZIAG -,230,1969
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 3500 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
APTOA6 8,305,1952
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kgEndocrine: Change in gonadotropinsSWEHDO 4,66,1978
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kgEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Change in LH
SWEHDO 4,66,1978
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 160 mg/kgBehavioral: Coma

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)
BMJOAE 2,94,1977
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/6W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Encephalitis

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
AJGAAR 93,830,1998
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/6W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: JointsARHEAW 25,1494,1982
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuseAIMDAP 143,1271,1983
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1.013 mg/kgTCMUD8 22,83,2001
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1800 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
APTOA6 8,305,1952
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Liver: Multiple effects
FATOAO 50,52,1987
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgHPV407 -,-,2001
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/2WBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
SMJOAV 80,1577,1987
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/18D- intermittentLiver: Jaundice, other or unclassifiedJCLPDE 46,67,1985
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 90 mg/kg/18D- intermittentBehavioral: Coma

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
DMWOAX 118,1355,1993
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/kgHPV407 -,-,2001
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2600 mg/kgNIIRDN -,523,1995
subcutaneous/rat Lethal dose: >4 gm/kgAPTOA6 8,305,1952
Tank with water/Daphnia Lowest published lethal concentration: 3.2 µg/L/21DAQUTO* 7,165,1985
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 32.62 µg/L/48HReproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesNETEEC 34,413,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 80 µg/L/6DReproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTXAPA9 268,221,2013
Tank with water/Zebrafish lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.48 mg/L/48HTXAPA9 268,221,2013
Tank with water/Zebrafish lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.45 mg/L/96HTXAPA9 268,221,2013
Tank with water/Zebrafish lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.36 mg/L/6DTXAPA9 268,221,2013

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 375 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
ARTODN 83,571,2009
ocular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 58.75 mg/kg/47D- intermittentEye: Other eye effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BPBLEO 31,981,2008
ocular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 82.5 mg/kg/33D- intermittentEye: Other eye effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on active transport
BPBLEO 31,981,2008
ocular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 41.25 mg/kg/33D- intermittentEye: Other eye effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BPBLEO 31,981,2008
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 1750 mg/kg/7D- intermittentAutonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in spleen
APTOA6 8,305,1952
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 39.3 mg/kg/11D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)BCPHBM 53,155,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3200 mg/kg/16D- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentMOCAT* 3,1049,2004
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/18D- intermittentSpinal Cord: Demyelination

Autonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal
APTOA6 8,305,1952
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91250 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV407 -,-,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 11200 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEye: Other eye effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
TXCYAC 197,177,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5250 mg/kg/1W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 66,44,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 31.5 gm/kg/6W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changesTOXID9 66,44,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40500 mg/kg/9W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 60,33,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/7D- intermittentAutonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Blood: Changes in spleen
APTOA6 8,305,1952
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6750 mg/kg/6W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
TOLED5 75,235,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7770 mg/kg/3W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
APTOA6 55,339,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6545 mg/kg/13W- intermittentAutonomic Nervous System: Parasympatholytic

Gastrointestinal: Contraction (isolated tissue)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
APTOA6 55,339,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 720 mg/kg/60D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
EPEPEG 292,89,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 44640 mg/kg/2Y- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JPMSAE 59,1267,1970
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/5D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Liver: Jaundice (or hyperbilirubinemia) hepatocellular

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JHEPT* 21,853,1994
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/8W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Paresthesia
JTCTDW 46,314,2008
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 760 mg/kg/91D- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentMOCAT* 3,1049,2004

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 2 mg/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 12,85,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 12,85,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMSUDL 7,56,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 2,365,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJHEPT* 21,853,1994
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJHEPT* 44,791,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,84,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDERCL* 27,289,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 3,179,1979
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,377,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 9,299,1985
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,225,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,671,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,42,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 750,1,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 795,7,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,I2

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 2 mg/m3;KZW 20 mg/m3, inhal, sen, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 6 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 2 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 2 mg/m3 (inhal.), skin, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, sen, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 2 mg/m3, inhal, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 1 mg/m3, 2003

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DISULFIRAM-air10H time-weighted average 2 mg/m3NIOSH* DHHS #95-121,1995
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 80219; Number of Industries 28; Total Number of Facilities 2688; Number of Occupations 51; Total Number of Employees Exposed 53525; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 6305
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 80219; Number of Industries 4; Total Number of Facilities 209; Number of Occupations 24; Total Number of Employees Exposed 4441

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (feed);no evidence:mouse,ratNCITR* NCI-TR-166,1979
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 23, 1978
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